|2013 August JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL|
|2013 August JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL
Vol.67, No.8 Abstracts
Current State and View in the Future of Domestic Forest
In "Forest and forestry revitalization plan" that had been made public in December, 2009, the target to be going to raise rate of self-sufficiency to 50% within ten years in the future was set. As a result, various approaches to increase production of wood are examined in a domestic each home.
However, the rate of self-sufficiency of wood has stayed in the latter half of the level 20% now. In this report the current state and the prospect in the future of domestic forest are described.
Global Woodchip Demand and China Impact
Paper Products & Material Department, ITOCHU Corporation
Generally speaking, woodchip used as raw materials for paper manufacturing is being produced locally for local consumption in many countries and woodchip imports trade has concentrated in Asia and parts of Europe.
Japan has been the leading country in woodchip import trade and it has recorded 14 million Bone Dry Tons (BDT) in 2008, their highest woodchip import volume ever but due to decline in Japanese economy and increase in paper imports into Japan after the eLehman shockfor Global Financial Crisis, this import volume is now around 80% of 2008 import level.
While we saw a large decline in woodchip imports into JPN, there has been a large increase in woodchip imports into China, increasing from about 1 million BDT in 2008 to 7 million BDT in 2012, and this is expected to reach 11 million BDT which is similar to Japan volume in the next few years.
We have also seen a sharp increase in woodchip export volume from Asia such as Vietnam & Thailand, going from 1 million BDT for Vietnam and 0.7 million BDT for Thailand in 2008 to 5.8 million BDT and 2.9 million BDT respectively. Woodchip export volume out of Vietnam and Thailand is now no.1 and no.3 in the world.
Due to these factors, demand for woodchip import which is focused on Hardwood to China is actually increasing in the Pacific Rim region and market share on woodchip trade held by Japanese Paper companies is said to drop to around 50% of total Asian woodchip import demand by 2015. There are fears that this will lead to weakening of influence Japanese Paper companies will have in woodchip price negotiation in the future.
Considering the demand by China and in recent years, India and alternate use of woodchip such as particle boards and wood based biomass by China & Korea, issues Japan will face would be effective utilisation of domestic resource and to secure resource in mid to long term.
Based on this situation, I will be trying to clarify current status of global woodchip supply & demand, as well as impact China will have in the future.
Andritz Biomass Technology for Cost Reduction and New Business
Capital System Sales Group 1, Andritz K.K.
In worldwide, energy source has been moving from fossil energy to renewable energy due to the request of CO2 emission decrease. In addition to the request of CO2 emission decrease, we are also strongly moving to renewable energy due to the nuclear power plant issue in Japan. There are hydraulic power, solar power, wind power etc. as renewable energy. But biomass also is very important renewable energy source. And pulp & paper industry in Japan is looking for new business and cost reduction because of decrease of paper consumption and increase of material cost (i.e. chip, fossil fuel). This Paper presents Andritz technology for biomass handling and energy and dissolving pulp technology as new business.
TMP and CTMP Solution for a Sustainable Future
Sales & Marketing, Metso Paper Japan Co., Ltd.
TMP/CTMP production in the world is shrinking except in China. It is expected that hardwood CTMP production in China will increase in the future as well.
Challenging of TMP/CTMP is how to reduce refining energy from when this process was developed. One of the mills which Metso's process with new concept was applied succeeded to reduce main refining energy by 1400 kWh/adt comparing with conventional process and pulp is bleached with high efficiency by MC+HC 2-stage bleaching system. It is proven in some mills that higher production rate gives lower process energy consumption. Refiner segment with new concept is also developed for lower refining energy and higher quality. It is to combine different concepts into one pair of segments according to refining conditions and targets in each mill.
To develop utilization of TMP/CTMP by more energy saving and higher brightness up to more than 85% ISO is the challenge for the future of TMP/CTMP and machine/process suppliers.
Suggestions of Measures to Quality Losses of Recycled Waste-Paper
Technical & Engineering Department, AIKAWA IRON WORKS CO., LTD.
Recently, in Japan, the quality of the recycled waste-paper is lowering substantially. This appears to be influenced by (1) the globalization of the distribution for the board & paper market and recycled waste-paper market, (2) the generalization of the mail-order businesses that are delivering individual packages with plastic bags and polystyrene foam fillings, and (3) the decrease of the quantity for the writing-printing paper, news printing paper production and the excellent recycled waste paper, and this was brought by the economic downturn or increasing the internet and digital tools. On the other hand, the higher quality of the paper stock is becoming more and more important because the required basis weight would be lower and the required paper machine speed and stability would be higher. And also the visual quality and printing suitability becomes more and more important because for example the liner surface quality needs to be higher to suit the merchandise display with a shipping package box.
Of course, saving energy and reducing fiber loss as much as possible are permanent targets from the points of view of cost-wise and reducing emissions. Today it becomes more important task because the higher quality board and paper would be necessary due to the lower quality recycled waste-paper.
In this report, we, AIKAWA would like to introduce the measures to quality loss of recycled waste-paper by applying our newest technology to the existing stock preparation system (from pulper to the paper machine approach system).
The Approach to the Deteriorated Kraft Pulping Plant
Kasugai Mill, Oji Paper Co., Ltd.
Kasugai mill, Oji Paper, has started the operation in 1952, as fine paper making plant which introduced Japan's first commercial Kamyr-type continuous digester and multi stage bleach line. It has now taken the lead in Oji Paper as the integrated pulp and paper plant with producing several paper grades, through a couple of new installation, reinforcement, replacement and modification.
Recently, Japanese paper industry has been in a tough situation, since the domestic demand of paper has reduced and the imported paper has increased. In such a situation, the replacement including S&B has been severely restricted, and the maintenance on existing facilities has become the key in managing plant operation. In our mill, equipment failure led to production loss had been recently increased because numerous facilities might be deteriorated by long term operation.
The production losses by equipment failure and mistake in operation have not an impact on business productivity but also safety and environment aspect, so that a couple of countermeasure have been scheduled with based on analysis of production loss cases.
The five cases of deteriorated equipment failure are reported in this article with cause and solution.
Establishment of Kiln Calcination Capability Reinforcement Construction
and Its Operation Method
Iwakuni Mill, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
At Iwakuni Mill and Otake Mill which locates next to it in Nippon Paper Industries, the production system of pulp and paper is needed to reconstruct for the purpose of earning recovery.
As one of the measure of this, we try to make more competitive Kraft Pulp by curtailing the production of pulp at Otake Mill indefinitely, consolidating production into Iwakuni Mill and providing Otake Mill with pulp.
For this reason, it becomes more important to produce pulp stably. To achieve this, there is priority issue - epoor capacity of caustic processf to be solved. Especially lack of capacity of hot lime production in kiln is bottleneck in our caustic process when we make up enough white liquor for two digesters in full swing. Dealing with this problem from the aspect of improvement of facilities, usage of chemical an examination of operating condition, we achieve to produce sufficient white liquor by increasing hot lime production.
Quality Accident and Countermeasure Due to Pulp Equipment FRP Deterioration
Kitakami Hitec Paper Corporation
For the first time, we experienced the trouble of the quality by degradation of the FRP material currently used for pulp equipment in the operation over many years. It was difficult to discover the place which dirt generated at the beginning. At last, it turned out that heat treatment changes it into yellow from white, and it has the feature which shows a fluorescent reaction. From the feature, we created the judgment method about the quantity of that, and conducted investigation about it. As a result, it became clear that it is based on degradation of the FRP material currently variously used at the pulp process. After that, the generating place of that was discovered, and as a result of performing various measures, generating of that will not take place.
This report describes progress from discovery of dirt to solution.
The Fire Measure at Wood Chip Handling Process
Niigata Mill, Hokuetsu Kishu Paper Co., Ltd.
We treat a lot of combustibles at the wood chip handling process, so it is always put to the risk of a fire. Actually, at conveyer for wood chip, many fire accidents have been reported. At wood chip handling process which is the uppermost part of a factory, an outbreak of fire has a serious influence on factory operation. That's why the fire prevention is strongly needed.
At Niigata Mill of Hokuetsu Kishu Paper, the fire measure at wood chip handling process is filled with much more power from around 2009. In this news, I'd like to introduce some measures against a fire, for example, improvement of operation and equipment, introduction of a temperature monitoring system, and so on. Those measures are introduced at the gKvaerner lineh, with a larger production between two lines of the pulping process in Niigata Mill.
- Releasing of Environmental Factors and Sequential Functionalization -
Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University
In order to achieve the cascade-type flow of lignocellulosic components as functional materials in human life, a novel conversion system has been developed and a new type of structure-controllable lignin-based polymers (lignophenols) has originally been designed. The originally designed process includes the phase-separative reaction system composed of phenol derivatives and concentrated acid. Through this process, native lignins are converted quantitatively to a new type of lignin-based polymer (lignophenols) composed mainly of 1,1-bis(aryl)propane type units. The selective grafting of monomeric phenol derivatives to C1-positions of propane units leads to the formation of new phenylpropane units between grafted phenolic units and lignin propane units, resulting in a dramatic change of the original lignin functions. The characteristic units in lignophenols, 1,1-bis(aryl) propane-2-O-aryl ethers, can be used as switching devices for the structural control. The separated carbohydrates include water-soluble monomers, oligomers, and polymers. These are easily converted to valuable chemicals such as alcohols, lactic acid, furfural, xylitol, etc. In order to create sustainable human society without petroleum, aliphatic and aromatic types of industrial raw materials must be derived sustainably from biomaterials (lignocellulosics). A new sustainable industrial network initiated from forests is designed.
Basic Lecture of Paper Board (3)
Used Paper Recycling in the Paper Making Process
Akihiro Yamamori and Taku Uchiumi
Oji Materia Co. ,Ltd.
The paper-machine is generally consisted of the headbox, the wire part, the press part, the drier part, the calendar, etc., and each part had simple structure once.
Moreover, since opration of the paper-machine depended on operatorfs experience, knowledge and intuition concerning about operation method of equipment, it was difficult to get the stable quality of paper and condition of the paper-machine.
However, various research and development and continuous progress of various equipment have caused the drastic improvement of the performance of a papermaking process.
We describe the outline of the structure and principle about each papermaking process.
Corporate Profile & Product Information (4)
TOKUDEN Co., LTD.
Tokuden Co., Ltd. was established in 1939, since then, Tokuden has been developing and
manufacturing the transformer and reactor. In 1965, Tokuden developed the worlds first Induction Heated Jacket Roll using electromagnetic induction and the heat-pipe principle and it has been used in thermal processes the laminating, coating, calendering, heat stretching of films & fibers and heat setting. This article introduces an outline of Tokuden Co., Ltd. and our products.
Strength Properties of Wet-Combination Paper
Paper Chemical Division, Arakawa Chemical Industries, Ltd.
Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University
The effect of wet-combination of paper plies on some basic strength properties was investigated by using a series of wet-combined papers from lightly and heavily beaten pulps. As the basic in-plane and out-of plane strength properties, tensile, compressive, and internal bond strength were measured. Microfailures which are detectable as acoustic emissions (AEs) and occurred during the tensile deforming process were further examined to investigate the effect of wet-combination of paper plies on in-plane tensile strength. The results showed that an increase in paper ply by wet-combination brought about an increase in the plastic deformation region, leading to higher strain at breakage and an increase in tensile strength as a result of the higher strain at breakage rather than that of the increase in fiber bonding. Compared with homogenous paper made by pulp mixing, the presence of a strong paper ply within paper layer by wet-combination, irrespective of its z-directional position, may increase the period of gradual increase in microfailures at the plastic deformation region and delay the acute occurrence of microfailures just before the maximum load. The increase in microfailures accompanying the increased period of the plastic deformation by wet combination had little effect on the origin of microfailures. Strong paper plies located at both outer sides could prevent the development of microfailures connecting to paper sheet failure, and eventually resulting in higher strain at breakage and an increased tensile strength. In contrast to tensile strength, compressive strength in the X-Y direction was simply determined by the content of highly beaten pulp, regardless of the manner of combination, i.e., wet-combination or pulp mixing. Tensile strength in the Z-direction, which is evaluated as internal bond strength, was determined by that of the weakest paper ply and wet combination brought about a further decrease in the Z-directional tensile strength.
Development of Imaging Materials for Electronic Paper by Using I/O Values
Ryohei Nakazawa, Ryo Tanizaki, Motochika Yukawa and Shuichi Maeda
Optical and Imaging Science and Technology, Tokai University
Electronic paper plays an important role in information devices, principally due to readability under high ambient light and low power consumption. In electronic paper, microcapsule electrophoretic display is most preferable system because it has good readability which is close to that of conventional paper. Particles as display elements of an electrophoretic display are covered with polymer surfactants which prevent these particles from co-aggregation. The key technology in obtaining successful electrophoretic displays is utilizing appropriate surfactants for dispersing these particles. It generally takes long time and high cost to find such surfactants. To reduce the R&D time and cost, finding useful parameters for appropriate suitable surfactants is necessary. This paper focuses on the effect of I/O values as the parameter, particularly emphasizing use in surfactants and dispersion media. Model display units containing silicone oil as a media, titanium oxide and iron oxide particles covered with/without octyltriethoxy silane or fluoro silane were prepared in order to investigate the effect of I/O values. The motion of these particles in the display units were observed in the presence/absence of magnetic field. The separation and re-dispersion cycle can be observed repeatedly with the only display unit which contains both titanium oxide and iron oxide particles covered with octyltriethoxy silane in the silicone oil. The repeatability of separation and re-dispersion seems to come from the I/O value (=0.39) of particles covered with octyltriethoxy silane which is quite close to the I/O value (=0.40) of silicone oil. This repeatability is crucially important when considering applications such as electronic books. Through experimental works including above, we believe that I/O value is one of the useful parameters in order to develop appropriate surfactants for display elements of electrophoretic displays.