|2009 June JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL
Vol.63 No.6 Abstracts
The Latest Trend and Future View of Electric Vehicles and Fuel-Cell Vehicles
FCEV Center, Japan Automobile Research Institute
As issues on energy security or global warming have been emerging large, hopes on the next-generation cars such as electric vehicles is growing larger and larger than ever.
This article introduces electric vehicles and fuel-cell vehicles which recently attract a great attention inside and outside of Japan, action by the government, development of those vehicles, significance of their spread from both efficiency and CO2 aspects and problems they will face.
Energy Saving by Review and Optimization of Existing Facilities
Nikko Mill, Oji Paperboard Co., Ltd.
An energy cost rises with the high crude oil prices of these days, and the companies are coming under serious influence of the paper manufacture industry that energy many consumption model is industrial together in profit side.
In addition, as global warming preventive measures, the paper pulp industry reduces a fossil energy basic unit per the product ratio 13% in 1990 by 2010 and I advocate CO2 discharge basic unit 10% reduction and take it over in the policy in each carried out energy saving activity to reduce an energy basic unit by the ISO14000 acquisition in the sunlight factory in 2002 carried out energy basic unit 15%, 1,500kW (CO2 conversion 6660t/ year) as reduction target.
Water Conservation and Energy Saving Program with Process Analysis by Applying Sealing BAT
-Improve Continuous Digester Production Performance by Using of Sealing Best Available Technology-
Kenji Matsunishi and Ryuji Oka
A. W. Chesterton Co., Ltd.
Cold water getting into Kamyr Continuous Digester System will not only drop thermal efficiency, but also reduce production capacity. This system has been up-graded in many years to increase production efficiency, but still there is some blind spot, such as rotating equipment's sealing system. Fortunately, water is almost free in Japan. But this fact has been prevented Japanese Pulp mill's improvement. In some countries such as Europe and USA, these countries have been forced to make production under water usage limitation. Sealing technology has been improved with these regulation and found, water saving will lead to improve production and energy saving for pulp production. This idea has been known as "Water Saving Sealing Solution" or "Waterless Sealing Solution" since 1997. These are such as waterless gland packing, 3rd Generation Dual mechanical seals, Dual Flow meter for Dual mechanical seals, Barrier tank system for Dual mechanical seals, Spiral Track flow controller system, etc.. We have been surveyed sealing water usage at 17 pulp mills in Japan since 1998, and found there are still many up-grade points exist. As a result of survey, lowest sealing water contamination into digester is approx 20m3/day, and highest is over 200m3/day, and most of them are between 40m3/day-70m3/day. These are equivalent of 200kL-300kL fuel oil/yr., and 540t-950t/yr CO2 emission. By applying newest best available sealing technology, we can reduce approx 80-90% of sealing water contamination. Then we can up-grade digester thermal efficiency, reduce thermal energy, increase production capacity, and increase equipment reliability. This presentation will show our result of mill survey in Japan and solution to improve.
Steam Saving by Chilled Water Temperature Optimization in R8 Process
Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
There are many chlorine dioxide preparation plants in our industry. The chlorine dioxide gas is absorbed in chilled water for use in the pulp mills’ bleach plant. Some energy consumed in water cooling process could be saved by raising the chilled water temperature. Two mills (Fuji and Iwakuni) demonstrated this idea. Each of these mills has successfully raised the temperature from 5oC to 10oC (5oC increase) without any noticeable negative effect. Steam usage for ejectors (vacuum evaporation system) has been reduced 25%-50% in summer, 100% in winter.
Case Study of Steam Saving by Installing the Mini Shoe Press
Hachinohe Mill, Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited
In August 2007, we installed Shoe Press in No.6 paper machine of Hachinohe mill, with the aim of production increase and steam saving. We adopted Mini Shoe Press developed by MHI (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.). We could improve dryness capability and steam saving by high dewatering performance of the Mini Shoe Press.
Additionally, the dirt of canvas roll in dryer was decreased and the sheet running was stabilized. As a result, we could optimized drainage balance at dryer and achieved big steam saving equal to effect of Mini Shoe Press installing.
This report is described about steam saving by installing of Mini Shoe Press and optimization of drainage balance at dryer.
Steam Trap Management System
-Steam Cost Reduction-
In the last year, there were so many problems occurred, such as rise in cost of raw materials since the year before last, rise and fall in oil price, and world recession caused by financial crisis. It seems that difficulties last in this year, therefore, we think that we must get back to origin again and it is the time to firm the foundation. “Origin" and “Foundation" in your industry are costs of motive power, especially the remarkable consumption of electrical energy and also steam energy. “Steam Trap Management System" that we introduce this time, is able to check “stages of deterioration of steam traps" accurately. Deterioration of steam traps is one of major factors of steam energy loss, and as a result of practical use of the data, “Steam Trap Management System" is use as tool for visual management.
Energy Saving by Waste Heat Recovery from Sludge Incinerator
Kasugai Division, Oji Engineering Co., Ltd.
Oji Engineering Co., Ltd. is the shared service company of Oji Paper Group. Our main job is to do the series of commissions that are from developments of basic plan to material procurements, constructions and the test runs also. Not only we should own the responsibility as the member in Oji Paper Group, but having with the accumulated technology and the know-how in the constructions or the operations experiences from paper, pulp plants, power plants, environmental equipments, we have been extending our business to the leading multi-engineering company. The Kasugai division on the premises of Kasugai mill, Oji Paper Co., Ltd. is responsible to engineering of Kasugai mill.
In the area of global warming countermeasures, we are actively promoting energy conservation according to the environmental action plan of Oji Paper Group titled “To reduce fossil fuel-based energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of production by 20% relative to the fiscal 1990 levels".
In this report, we introduce an example of energy saving by introducing the waste heat boiler to the sludge incinerator.
Water Saving of Existing Divisions for New Machine Water Use
-Water Saving by Filtrate Machine Waste Water Increase-
Stock Preparation Division, Niigata Mill, Hokuetsu Paper Mills, Ltd.
New N9 Paper Machine in the Niigata Mill of Hokuetsu Paper Mills, Ltd. has been in operation since last September 2008. Water saving was a one of important issue of N9 Paper Machine construction. Water saving of the existing divisions was necessary to produce water for N9 machine start up, pulp production improvement and other new equipment introduction.
We have achieved necessary water saving since we increased machine waste water recovery and introduced new sand filter in last April 2008.
Energy cost reduction in entire mill is a matter of great urgency due to recent remarkable sudden rise of raw material and crude oil price. In this report, we introduce the achievement of energy-saving by reducing the amount of water usage and waste water since we have done the waste water filtrate facility construction.
Reduction of Steam Consumption Rate by Heat Recovery of Turbine Condenser Cooling Water
Takaoka Mill, Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd.
While the concern about environmental problem is growing recently as global warming advances, the reduction of CO2 discharge, which is Greenhouse gas, is regarded as important. Therefore, for the individual company it became an important subject to reduce energy cost. In September, 2006, for the purpose of not only the reduction of CO2 consumption but also the saving of energy cost, we installed the circulation fluid bed type boiler which uses mainly Tire Chips, RPFs, small pieces of Woods and Coals as fuels at Takaoka Mill Futatsuka Site. This article reports about the improvement of the steam consumption per ton of paper both by the installation of this waste fuel using boiler itself and by the water conservation measure we did in 2008.
This time, it introduces the energy-saving example which the investment cost was smaller.
CO2 Reduction Solution to Achieve Corporate Environmental Target
-Energy Saving Application for Cogeneration System and Compressed Air Supply System-
Kazuo Ueki, Kiyoshi Segawa and Michihisa Suzuki
Under the Kyoto protocol, Japan is required to cut its output of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases by 6 percent from 1990 levels between 2009 and 2012. To achieve this target, Japanese government’s policies are revised Energy Conservation Law, continuous subsidy, promotion for clean development mechanism and so on. Also Japanese Federation of Economic Organizations is leading that each company should set their target for CO2 reduction and action plan.
Pulp & paper is one of the biggest industries for CO2 emissions and set the target is cut CO2 by 20% from 1990. This will be a big contribution to achieve Japanese goal. So far fuel switch is main activity for CO2 reduction. And next step will be optimal control for their utility plant to reduce CO2 furthermore.
Yamatake has built on its core of measurement and control technologies to maintain its position at the forefront of Japan's automation industry since our founding in 1906. Saving through automation, has been the key to Yamatake's business policy, and we have consistently maintained a commitment toward environmental protection. Pulp and Paper industry is consuming a lot of steam, power and air. For more CO2 reduction these utility generation are key part. In this paper you will find our practical optimal control approach for cogeneration plant and air compressor.
Insect Control and Energy Saving by Light Effects
The conventional way to control pest insects is to treat by insecticide. However, growing concerns about environmental problems and improvement of quality control has made chemical treatment undesirable and requires structural insect control instead.
Among non-chemical insect control methods, we will introduce insect control by light control which is also energy-efficient.
There are various kinds of light sources which emit a lot of UV in factories. Especially, mercury lamps emit very strong UV, which gives negative influence to all the illuminated area. High-pressure sodium lamps have a lot of problems as well. Therefore, it is very important to be careful to use such lamps in order to control insects.
A Report on the ICPPB 2008
The ICPPB 2008 (International Conference on Pulping, Papermaking and Biotechnology 2008) was held in Nanjing, China on November 4-6, 2008 hosted by Nanjing Forestry University and TAPPI.
There were presentations more than 100 in 9 sessions. Total number of participant was approximately 320. Since China is remarkably developing country in paper manufacturing and as hosted by Nanjing Forestry University is highly regarded in Chinese paper research field, JAPAN TAPPI cooperated with TAPPI in this conference. There were participants more than 70 from the foreign countries, USA, Japan, and etc.. In addition, I visited South China University after the conference. I report in conjunction with the meeting.
How Technological Innovations Changed Newsprint and Its Making Process
-Survey on Technological Developments in Newsprint Production in Japan (Part II)-
Senior researcher in 2007, Center of the History of Japanese Industrial Technology, National Museum of Nature and Science, Executive Director emeritus, JAPAN TAPPI
Part one of the series presented a short history of pulp and paper industry, background of selecting the theme and introductory briefing on basic technologies. Part two presents how newsprint and the way of producing it have been evolving in the past 60 years, along with fiber source development in 60 years.
After the collapse of the industry in the World War II, demand for newsprint has been increasing along with GDP growth. News printers innovated their technology from letter press to offset press. They also asked to reduce the basis weight of newsprint to save cost and resources. The industry, having been trying to satisfy printers’ requests, had to develop fiber sources successively to meet the growing demand and had to be competitive against imported newsprint by improving its productivity. With technological efforts, the industry has kept supplying to the most of domestic market.
Regarding fiber source development, it started with using red pine for goundwood pulp. Then, hardwood was used to fill the need at an early stage of expansion. Chips imported overseas followed next. Then, recycled pulp or deinked pulp has become a major pulp source in newsprint production. These were technical breakthroughs originally developed in Japan, which made the industry survive in the competitive world market.
A New Method for On-line Measurement of Fiber Orientation Based on Dielectric Anisotropy
Masahiro Kurosawa, Ikuko Furukawa, Hidetada Sawamoto and Shinichi Nagata
Technological Initiatives Research Laboratory, Oji Paper Co., Ltd.
The development of a new on-line fiber orientation sensor has reached the final stage for practical application. The measurement principle of the on-line sensor is based on the dielectric anisotropy which is detected from the interaction with polarized microwave. A strong point of our sensor is ability to measure the fiber orientation of the entire paper sheet, not just at its surface. The prominent performance of the sensor was proven by the experiments on an actual paper machine. The accuracy of the on-line sensor in respect of orientation angle and magnitude was evaluated by comparing with typical off-line methods such as microwave method, MOA, and ultra sonic velocity method, SST. The data from the on-line sensor are in good agreement with those from MOA. These two measurement methods are based on the same measurement principle, dielectric anisotropy. On the other hand, SST, which is based on the anisotropy of modulus of elasticity, shows smaller orientation angles and bigger orientation magnitudes than those from the on-line sensor and MOA. We examined the difference in detail and confirmed that SST tends to indicate stronger fiber orientation because it reflects not only fiber orientation but also the residual stress which is caused by restraint during the drying process on the paper machine. That is, our on-line sensor has successfully detects the actual fiber orientation, excluding the effect from the residual stress in the paper sheet which is usually caused by the tension in the machine direction.
One of the most difficult problems in installing this sensor system on paper machines was to maintain the uniform surface contact between the sensor head, consisting of five dielectric resonators, and the running paper sheet. To solve this problem, unique contacting mechanism which employs foil effect has been introduced to replace air suctioning through small holes at the sensor head surface.
The installations of our sensor onto a paper machine will enable automatic adjustment of the fiber orientation on the wire part, which leads the production of high quality paper.
Keywords: fiber orientation, on-line measurement, dielectric anisotropy