TAPPI JOURNALVol. 58, No.4
April 2004 Abstracts
The Effect of Deinked Pulp Parameters on the Sizing Performance
Tomohiko Nakata, Ryuji Itose and Kazunari Sakai
Harima Chemicals, Inc.
Environmental issues have been taken seriously in all over the world. Although
the papermaking industry is taking advantage of biomass resources, utilization
of recovered pulp as recycle has been one of the most important trials in order
to establish the ecological company. The recovered paper utilization rate target
has been increasing year after year, and it has been set up to be 60% in fiscal
year 2005. Deinked pulp (DIP) and virgin pulp have been used as raw materials
for papermaking. The utilization of DIP has made paper chemicals less effective
due to increase of fines, decrease of retention and increase of miscellaneous
substances. Other factors such as deinking agent and washing process have also
affected the properties of DIP. However, researches have primarily focused on
either the impact of recycle on the DIP or surface tension of deinking agents
rather than investigating the effect of the DIP parameters on the sizing performance.
Therefore, factors that can affect paper sizing in the DIP system were investigated
in this research. Furthermore, design of a novel dispersed rosin size for this
system is discussed.
Development of Environmentally Friendly Deinking Agent
Atsushi Yamasaki, Kousuke Yoshida, Akinori Kanetani and Toshio Kakui
Chemicals Research Laboratories, Lion Corporation
Waste paper recycling has been developed for the protection of the environment
around the world. The deinking agent plays one of the most important roles in
the deinking process for waste paper recycling. However, the environmental safety
of the deinking agent has not been discussed until now, and the biodegradability
of the currently used deinking agent is not good. Recently, the safety of the
chemical ingredients has received worldwide attention based on environmental
and human concerns. Using the raw material derived from plants, a new deinking
agent that is environmentally acceptable was developed by engineering the molecular
structure and molecular weight. The deinking agent showed an environmental safety
equal to that of soap. The deinking performance was also much better than the
conventional deinking agent; especially, it had an excellent pulp yield.
Reduction of Pitch Deposit Troubles by Coagulant Derived from Waste Corrugated
Masanori Kosuga, Tetsuo Morijiri, Motoharu Fujii and Masatomi Ogawa
Seiko PMC Corporation, R&D Division, Chiba Laboratory
In paper manufacturing process, the formation of colloidal pitch particle is
an important matter that affects the runnability and finished product quality.
Pitch deposit troubles caused by stickies in the recycled waste pulp have been
increased with increasing the usage rate of recycled waste paper. Especially,
pitches of polyacrylate esters derived from adhesives used for labels in the
door-to-door delivery services have been drastically increased for the last several
years. This type of pitches is frequently found on the drier rolls and canvases.
Four different types of our coagulants were evaluated in the liner mill which
has pitch trouble derived from polyacrylate ester. These coagulants were effective
in the reductions of the amount of pitch on the drier doctor, defects in the
paper, and also turbidity and anionicity of white water, irrespective the kinds
Evaluations of the coagulants above were carried out in our laboratory in order
to study mechanism of pitch formation and effects of the coagulants with the
use of model pitch. Polyacrylate ester extracted from adhesive tape with THF
was used as model pitch. The results showed the coagulants are effective in preventing
pitch agglomeration of this model pitch. However, the action mechanism of the
coagulants may be different, depending on their types, from the results of measurement
of pitch particle size and its distribution by in-line particle monitoring system.
New Rebuild Concept for Paper Machine Sections-For Further Improvement of Paper
Quality and Productivity-
Metso-SHI Co., Ltd.
Several full line of OptiConcept machines with Metso Paper's advanced technologies
integrated have been running and acquired favorable world-wide reputations in
recent years. To achieve higher level of paper quality and higher productivity
is targeted for these machines. An on-line LWC paper machine with 10 m wide and
2000 m/min of design speed is a good example.
On the other hand, the improvement of product quality, increase in production
capacity and improvement of production line's performance not by installing a
new production line but by rebuilding existing machines, are strongly requested.
The technologies for such rebuilds consist of several individual section rebuilds,
which together produce an effective line rebuild. Instead of approaching improvements
by rebuilding the whole line at once, a step-by-step rebuild approach may be
taken to start by improving areas with the greatest potential first.
In this presentation, we introduce several topics selected from wide range of
Metso's rebuild technologies.
Hurth PM1-The World's Most Modern Newsprint Line Breaks New Records-
Voith IHI Paper Technology Co., Ltd.
This entire project and commissioning impressively shows what can be achieved
through an optimal combination of meticulous planning, innovative technology,
and competent personnel both on the side of the supplier and the customer. Bernhard
Schmidt, Rhein Papier GmbH project manager, sums up the Hurth PM1 project execution
and results as follows: "In the record time of only 12 months from construction
start up to first paper on the Sirius reel, we completed an exceptional project
together with Voith. Hurth PM1 is certainly one of the greatest successes in
our entire company history".
JK-BC System As a Highly Advanced Wastewater Treatment System-Actual Case of
Denitrification (Wastewater from Animal Husbandry)-
Itochu Sanki Corporation
The JK-BC system is a wastewater treatment system developed as an evolution
of activated sludge process and rotating biological contactor process. It uses
bacilli (aerobic bacteria) preferentially cultured to a high concentration in
combination with JK-BC system (three-dimensional rotating biological contactor)
to bring about an evolution in the field of wastewater treatment. The JK-BC system
has made it possible to treat high-concentration wastewater to remove nitrogen,
phosphor, and odors which cannot be eliminated by the conventional bacteria.
Analysis of Distributions of the Paper Chemicals on Paper (II)-Approach to the
Size Effect and the Appearance of Strengthening Mechanism by in-situ Observation-
Research & Development Center, Arakawa Chemical Industries, Ltd.
The fixing of paper chemicals (sizing agent and strengthening agent) has been
evaluated, in terms of "quantity", such as content % in paper, and
the form of fixation has not intensely studied.
Also, the fundamental observations of detailed pulp structure and distribution
of paper chemicals on the pulp were not simple tasks.
In recent years, the progress of analytical technologies has been enabling the
detail evaluation of paper and pulp surface in simple process and the observation
of paper chemicals on the micro-fibril has become possible by utilizing Scanning
Probe Microscope (SPM).
The newest analysis results for distributions of sizing agent and strengthening
agent on the paper and pulp fiber by utilizing Environmental Scanning Electron
Microscope (ESEM) is reported in this presentation.
Structural Analysis of Coating Layer Containing Plastic Pigments
Yoko Saito, Hideki Touda and Junji Kasai
Hitomi Hamada, Toshiharu Enomae and Fumihiko Onabe
The University of Tokyo
Recently, the amount of plastic pigment used for coated paper has been increasing
because the requirement of coated paper has been changed to have high sheet gloss,
high brightness, and good opacity. The effect of plastic pigments existing in
coating layer on the properties of coated paper was investigated by analyzing
the structure of coating layer. According to the results of the measurement of
porosity, SEM image of cross-section surface and analysis of its photographic
image, it is found that the coated paper including plastic pigment shows the
excellent smoothness and has a lot of pore in the coating layer and the orientation
of inorganic pigment are disordered compared with that formulated by inorganic
pigment only. This tendency is stronger in case of using hollow sphere. Following
2 reasons were considered, the existence of void due to the hollow sphere itself
and disordered orientation of inorganic pigment by hollow sphere which has large
particle size. Plastic pigment would play an important role in order to manufacture
the coated paper of bulky and excellent optical properties. In this report we
describe these examination results.
The Measurement of Flow load and Detecting Leak for Utility Air in Plant, as
for Saving Energy
Sec.2, Marketing Department, Advanced Automation Company, Yamatake Corporation
This paper explains the importance of selecting an air flowmeter in flow load
measurement and the system of detecting very little air leak, and introduces
an air flowmeter, AIRcube and an air leak detector, Leak DetectorII, which is
needed for reducing a load of utility air of a pulp and paper plant, from the
Recent Trends of Pulp and Paper Related Test Standards-The Situation of ISO Standards
and Precise Response in JIS Establishment-
Paper Science Laboratory, Bio-material Sciences, Graduate School of agriculture
and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo
Testing standards committee member of JAPAN TAPPI
Test standards play important rolls in management of pulp and paper products,
data acquisition of fundamental research etc. for companies in papermaking industry.
In comparison with past products of themselves or with products of other companies,
test standards provide the means of evaluation beyond time and space. Pulp and
Paper Test Standards Committee of Japan TAPPI, as major tasks, take a commission
to establish JIS and deliberate ISO drafts for voting on them. Since 1998, JIS
has been conformed to ISO standards so that Japanese domestic standards would
not become a non-tariff barrier. However, nowadays, international standardization
activities are obviously utilized as a national strategy by EU and United States.
Japan stands in a crucial stage, but we should positively get involved with activities
of Working Groups in ISO/TC6 - paper, board and pulps - to direct ISO standards
never against Japanese papermaking industry. This article will summarize 10 recent
standards of JIS published or to be published in 2000 or later as well as 19
ISO standards under draft processes to understand the world situation. At last，the
next international meeting of ISO/TC6 is scheduled on November 3rd to 8th this
autumn in Tokyo. Kind cooperation and participation by everyone interested would
A Report on 18th ISO/TC6 Meeting
Takayuki Okayama*, Kyoji Kishi**, Daisuke Sakakibara**, Toshitsugu Yamada***,
Yoriyuki Hattori**** and Tadashi Kano
Pulp and Paper Testing Committee, JAPAN TAPPI
*Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
**Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
***Oji Container Co., Ltd.
****Mishima Paper Co., Ltd.
Japan TAPPI hosted the plenary meeting of ISO/TC6, which is responsible for
the development of international standards for paper, board and pulps, on November
3-8, 2003 in Tokyo.
Meetings of two Sub Committees, SC2 and SC5 were held on November 6 and 7, respectively.
Sixty-eight delegates representing 15 member countries presented in the series
of meetings. This was Mr. George Weiss’ last meeting as Chairman of ISO/TC6.
Mr. Robert Wood has been appointed as the next chairman of ISO/TC6, for a three-year
term since January 1, 2004.
A proposal to create standard testing methods for the determination of D65 brightness
and the Determination of Colour (D65/10?) was approved (9 approved, 3 disapproved
and 2 abstained). The revision of ISO 216 to include American writing paper dimensions
was received favourably by 71% of the members voting, and therefore is qualified
to proceed directly to the DIS stage.
Liquid Transfer Characteristics of Recycled Pulp Handsheets
Takayuki Okayama, Nozomi Yoshinaga and Ken-Ichi Hashizume
Laboratory of Recycled Resource Science, Faculty of Agriculture,
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Laboratory of Complex Functions of Materials, Faculty of Technology,
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Structural characteristics of chemical pulp fibers are irreversibly changed
by recycling. The change of the surface behavior of a single pulp fiber during
recycling was characterized by measuring the contact angle using appropriate
test liquids. A remarkable increase in the contact angle of water was found after
recycling. Recycling treatment did not substantially change the surface free
energy of the fiber. However, the base parameter of the surface free energy decreased
with recycling, particularly that based on free-drying at high temperature.
Two types of penetration measurements were designed to measure the rate of vertical
(Z direction) and lateral (X-Y direction) liquid penetrations into paper. The
rate of water penetration increased with recycling, and correlated with a porous
structure in the recycled pulp handsheet. The tortuosity factor for the handsheet
was calculated using the Lucas-Washburn equation. The recycled pulp gave smaller
tortuosity factors of the handsheet compared with the virgin pulp.
Keywords : Recycling, Pulp fiber, Wetting, Liquid penetration, Acid-base interactions
The Evaluation of Paper Sludge (PS) for Zeolite synthesis(Part 4)-Monthly Change
of Chemical Composition of PS and The Proposal of the Synthesis Technique to
Takao Ando, Osamu Sugiyama, Masato Saito and Kimio Hiyoshi
Fuji industrial research institute of Shizuoka prefecture
Naoto Matsue and Teruo Henmi
Department of agriculture, Ehime Univ.
Gakunan daiich cooperation of paper manufacturing association
We have been investigating the zeolite synthesis from paper sludge ashes (denoted
as PS zeolite) by alkali hydrothermal treatment as a new effective utilizing
technique of the paper sludge (PS). In this study, 102 samples of PS gathered
from 16 paper mills in Fuji city for a half year were chemically and mineralogically
examined and statistically evaluated in terms of fitness to the zeolite synthesis.
The chemical composition of PS and the characteristics of PS zeolite led us to
fallowing results. The relationship between CaO content (x) and the intensity
of XRD peak assigned to zeolite (Z-index/10000 = y) was found as y = -0.37Ln
(x)+1.48. Also, the fairly well linier relation between the atomic ratio of Ca
to Si, XCa/Si, and Ca to Al, XCa/Al, was found as XCa/Si/XCa/Al=0.89. Based on
these relationships, we classified the PS's into new chemical ranges of (A) to
(D) in order to distribute almost the same number of samples in each range; that
is, 21, 23, 22, 24, respectively. Here, Z-index/10000 at the boundary of the
ranges (A) to (B) was 0.41, (B) to (C) 0.25 and (C) to (D) 0.20. This new classification
was then converted to the mineralogical ranges (A) to (D) in a talc-kaolinite-calcite
trigonal diagram through the calculation by normative method. It was found that
the PS ashes in the ranges (A) in the diagram never changed into the rage (D)
during a half year, and the reverse relationship was also correct. The mixture
of PS's discharged from the 16 mills, as is in practice, contained 25.0% CaO,
which was classified into the range of (B) and would formed hydroxysodalite.
We proposed a new technique in order to obtain zeolite from the PS mixture for
industrial output, in which 1.0M Si was added to the alkali solution with the
Keywords: zeolite, paper sludge, calcite, talc, kaolinite