April 2004 Abstracts

The Effect of Deinked Pulp Parameters on the Sizing Performance
Tomohiko Nakata, Ryuji Itose and Kazunari Sakai
Harima Chemicals, Inc.

 Environmental issues have been taken seriously in all over the world. Although the papermaking industry is taking advantage of biomass resources, utilization of recovered pulp as recycle has been one of the most important trials in order to establish the ecological company. The recovered paper utilization rate target has been increasing year after year, and it has been set up to be 60% in fiscal year 2005. Deinked pulp (DIP) and virgin pulp have been used as raw materials for papermaking. The utilization of DIP has made paper chemicals less effective due to increase of fines, decrease of retention and increase of miscellaneous substances. Other factors such as deinking agent and washing process have also affected the properties of DIP. However, researches have primarily focused on either the impact of recycle on the DIP or surface tension of deinking agents rather than investigating the effect of the DIP parameters on the sizing performance.
 Therefore, factors that can affect paper sizing in the DIP system were investigated in this research. Furthermore, design of a novel dispersed rosin size for this system is discussed.

Development of Environmentally Friendly Deinking Agent
Atsushi Yamasaki, Kousuke Yoshida, Akinori Kanetani and Toshio Kakui
Chemicals Research Laboratories, Lion Corporation

 Waste paper recycling has been developed for the protection of the environment around the world. The deinking agent plays one of the most important roles in the deinking process for waste paper recycling. However, the environmental safety of the deinking agent has not been discussed until now, and the biodegradability of the currently used deinking agent is not good. Recently, the safety of the chemical ingredients has received worldwide attention based on environmental and human concerns. Using the raw material derived from plants, a new deinking agent that is environmentally acceptable was developed by engineering the molecular structure and molecular weight. The deinking agent showed an environmental safety equal to that of soap. The deinking performance was also much better than the conventional deinking agent; especially, it had an excellent pulp yield.

Reduction of Pitch Deposit Troubles by Coagulant Derived from Waste Corrugated Board
Masanori Kosuga, Tetsuo Morijiri, Motoharu Fujii and Masatomi Ogawa
Seiko PMC Corporation, R&D Division, Chiba Laboratory

 In paper manufacturing process, the formation of colloidal pitch particle is an important matter that affects the runnability and finished product quality. Pitch deposit troubles caused by stickies in the recycled waste pulp have been increased with increasing the usage rate of recycled waste paper. Especially, pitches of polyacrylate esters derived from adhesives used for labels in the door-to-door delivery services have been drastically increased for the last several years. This type of pitches is frequently found on the drier rolls and canvases.
 Four different types of our coagulants were evaluated in the liner mill which has pitch trouble derived from polyacrylate ester. These coagulants were effective in the reductions of the amount of pitch on the drier doctor, defects in the paper, and also turbidity and anionicity of white water, irrespective the kinds of coagulants.
 Evaluations of the coagulants above were carried out in our laboratory in order to study mechanism of pitch formation and effects of the coagulants with the use of model pitch. Polyacrylate ester extracted from adhesive tape with THF was used as model pitch. The results showed the coagulants are effective in preventing pitch agglomeration of this model pitch. However, the action mechanism of the coagulants may be different, depending on their types, from the results of measurement of pitch particle size and its distribution by in-line particle monitoring system.

New Rebuild Concept for Paper Machine Sections-For Further Improvement of Paper Quality and Productivity-
Hidehiko Yamazaki
Metso-SHI Co., Ltd.

Several full line of OptiConcept machines with Metso Paper's advanced technologies integrated have been running and acquired favorable world-wide reputations in recent years. To achieve higher level of paper quality and higher productivity is targeted for these machines. An on-line LWC paper machine with 10 m wide and 2000 m/min of design speed is a good example.
 On the other hand, the improvement of product quality, increase in production capacity and improvement of production line's performance not by installing a new production line but by rebuilding existing machines, are strongly requested. The technologies for such rebuilds consist of several individual section rebuilds, which together produce an effective line rebuild. Instead of approaching improvements by rebuilding the whole line at once, a step-by-step rebuild approach may be taken to start by improving areas with the greatest potential first.
 In this presentation, we introduce several topics selected from wide range of Metso's rebuild technologies.

Hurth PM1-The World's Most Modern Newsprint Line Breaks New Records-
Takeshi Nonogaki
Voith IHI Paper Technology Co., Ltd.

 This entire project and commissioning impressively shows what can be achieved through an optimal combination of meticulous planning, innovative technology, and competent personnel both on the side of the supplier and the customer. Bernhard Schmidt, Rhein Papier GmbH project manager, sums up the Hurth PM1 project execution and results as follows: "In the record time of only 12 months from construction start up to first paper on the Sirius reel, we completed an exceptional project together with Voith. Hurth PM1 is certainly one of the greatest successes in our entire company history".

JK-BC System As a Highly Advanced Wastewater Treatment System-Actual Case of Denitrification (Wastewater from Animal Husbandry)-
Akira Ikeuchi
Itochu Sanki Corporation

 The JK-BC system is a wastewater treatment system developed as an evolution of activated sludge process and rotating biological contactor process. It uses bacilli (aerobic bacteria) preferentially cultured to a high concentration in combination with JK-BC system (three-dimensional rotating biological contactor) to bring about an evolution in the field of wastewater treatment. The JK-BC system has made it possible to treat high-concentration wastewater to remove nitrogen, phosphor, and odors which cannot be eliminated by the conventional bacteria.

Analysis of Distributions of the Paper Chemicals on Paper (II)-Approach to the Size Effect and the Appearance of Strengthening Mechanism by in-situ Observation-
Fumiaki Inokuchi
Research & Development Center, Arakawa Chemical Industries, Ltd.

 The fixing of paper chemicals (sizing agent and strengthening agent) has been evaluated, in terms of "quantity", such as content % in paper, and the form of fixation has not intensely studied.
 Also, the fundamental observations of detailed pulp structure and distribution of paper chemicals on the pulp were not simple tasks.
 In recent years, the progress of analytical technologies has been enabling the detail evaluation of paper and pulp surface in simple process and the observation of paper chemicals on the micro-fibril has become possible by utilizing Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM).
 The newest analysis results for distributions of sizing agent and strengthening agent on the paper and pulp fiber by utilizing Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) is reported in this presentation.

Structural Analysis of Coating Layer Containing Plastic Pigments
Yoko Saito, Hideki Touda and Junji Kasai
ZEON Corporation
Hitomi Hamada, Toshiharu Enomae and Fumihiko Onabe
The University of Tokyo

 Recently, the amount of plastic pigment used for coated paper has been increasing because the requirement of coated paper has been changed to have high sheet gloss, high brightness, and good opacity. The effect of plastic pigments existing in coating layer on the properties of coated paper was investigated by analyzing the structure of coating layer. According to the results of the measurement of porosity, SEM image of cross-section surface and analysis of its photographic image, it is found that the coated paper including plastic pigment shows the excellent smoothness and has a lot of pore in the coating layer and the orientation of inorganic pigment are disordered compared with that formulated by inorganic pigment only. This tendency is stronger in case of using hollow sphere. Following 2 reasons were considered, the existence of void due to the hollow sphere itself and disordered orientation of inorganic pigment by hollow sphere which has large particle size. Plastic pigment would play an important role in order to manufacture the coated paper of bulky and excellent optical properties. In this report we describe these examination results.

The Measurement of Flow load and Detecting Leak for Utility Air in Plant, as for Saving Energy
Taro Sento
Sec.2, Marketing Department, Advanced Automation Company, Yamatake Corporation

 This paper explains the importance of selecting an air flowmeter in flow load measurement and the system of detecting very little air leak, and introduces an air flowmeter, AIRcube and an air leak detector, Leak DetectorII, which is needed for reducing a load of utility air of a pulp and paper plant, from the above perspective.

Recent Trends of Pulp and Paper Related Test Standards-The Situation of ISO Standards and Precise Response in JIS Establishment-
Toshiharu Enomae
Paper Science Laboratory, Bio-material Sciences, Graduate School of agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo
Testing standards committee member of JAPAN TAPPI

 Test standards play important rolls in management of pulp and paper products, data acquisition of fundamental research etc. for companies in papermaking industry. In comparison with past products of themselves or with products of other companies, test standards provide the means of evaluation beyond time and space. Pulp and Paper Test Standards Committee of Japan TAPPI, as major tasks, take a commission to establish JIS and deliberate ISO drafts for voting on them. Since 1998, JIS has been conformed to ISO standards so that Japanese domestic standards would not become a non-tariff barrier. However, nowadays, international standardization activities are obviously utilized as a national strategy by EU and United States. Japan stands in a crucial stage, but we should positively get involved with activities of Working Groups in ISO/TC6 - paper, board and pulps - to direct ISO standards never against Japanese papermaking industry. This article will summarize 10 recent standards of JIS published or to be published in 2000 or later as well as 19 ISO standards under draft processes to understand the world situation. At last,the next international meeting of ISO/TC6 is scheduled on November 3rd to 8th this autumn in Tokyo. Kind cooperation and participation by everyone interested would be appreciated.

A Report on 18th ISO/TC6 Meeting
Takayuki Okayama*, Kyoji Kishi**, Daisuke Sakakibara**, Toshitsugu Yamada***,
Yoriyuki Hattori**** and Tadashi Kano
Pulp and Paper Testing Committee, JAPAN TAPPI
*Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
**Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
***Oji Container Co., Ltd.
****Mishima Paper Co., Ltd.

 Japan TAPPI hosted the plenary meeting of ISO/TC6, which is responsible for the development of international standards for paper, board and pulps, on November 3-8, 2003 in Tokyo.
 Meetings of two Sub Committees, SC2 and SC5 were held on November 6 and 7, respectively. Sixty-eight delegates representing 15 member countries presented in the series of meetings. This was Mr. George Weiss’ last meeting as Chairman of ISO/TC6. Mr. Robert Wood has been appointed as the next chairman of ISO/TC6, for a three-year term since January 1, 2004.
 A proposal to create standard testing methods for the determination of D65 brightness and the Determination of Colour (D65/10?) was approved (9 approved, 3 disapproved and 2 abstained). The revision of ISO 216 to include American writing paper dimensions was received favourably by 71% of the members voting, and therefore is qualified to proceed directly to the DIS stage.

Liquid Transfer Characteristics of Recycled Pulp Handsheets
Takayuki Okayama, Nozomi Yoshinaga and Ken-Ichi Hashizume
Laboratory of Recycled Resource Science, Faculty of Agriculture,
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Ken-Ichi Hashizume
Laboratory of Complex Functions of Materials, Faculty of Technology,
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

 Structural characteristics of chemical pulp fibers are irreversibly changed by recycling. The change of the surface behavior of a single pulp fiber during recycling was characterized by measuring the contact angle using appropriate test liquids. A remarkable increase in the contact angle of water was found after recycling. Recycling treatment did not substantially change the surface free energy of the fiber. However, the base parameter of the surface free energy decreased with recycling, particularly that based on free-drying at high temperature.
 Two types of penetration measurements were designed to measure the rate of vertical (Z direction) and lateral (X-Y direction) liquid penetrations into paper. The rate of water penetration increased with recycling, and correlated with a porous structure in the recycled pulp handsheet. The tortuosity factor for the handsheet was calculated using the Lucas-Washburn equation. The recycled pulp gave smaller tortuosity factors of the handsheet compared with the virgin pulp.

Keywords : Recycling, Pulp fiber, Wetting, Liquid penetration, Acid-base interactions

The Evaluation of Paper Sludge (PS) for Zeolite synthesis(Part 4)-Monthly Change of Chemical Composition of PS and The Proposal of the Synthesis Technique to Industrial Output-
Takao Ando, Osamu Sugiyama, Masato Saito and Kimio Hiyoshi
Fuji industrial research institute of Shizuoka prefecture
Naoto Matsue and Teruo Henmi
Department of agriculture, Ehime Univ.
Osamu Shimada
Gakunan daiich cooperation of paper manufacturing association

 We have been investigating the zeolite synthesis from paper sludge ashes (denoted as PS zeolite) by alkali hydrothermal treatment as a new effective utilizing technique of the paper sludge (PS). In this study, 102 samples of PS gathered from 16 paper mills in Fuji city for a half year were chemically and mineralogically examined and statistically evaluated in terms of fitness to the zeolite synthesis. The chemical composition of PS and the characteristics of PS zeolite led us to fallowing results. The relationship between CaO content (x) and the intensity of XRD peak assigned to zeolite (Z-index/10000 = y) was found as y = -0.37Ln (x)+1.48. Also, the fairly well linier relation between the atomic ratio of Ca to Si, XCa/Si, and Ca to Al, XCa/Al, was found as XCa/Si/XCa/Al=0.89. Based on these relationships, we classified the PS's into new chemical ranges of (A) to (D) in order to distribute almost the same number of samples in each range; that is, 21, 23, 22, 24, respectively. Here, Z-index/10000 at the boundary of the ranges (A) to (B) was 0.41, (B) to (C) 0.25 and (C) to (D) 0.20. This new classification was then converted to the mineralogical ranges (A) to (D) in a talc-kaolinite-calcite trigonal diagram through the calculation by normative method. It was found that the PS ashes in the ranges (A) in the diagram never changed into the rage (D) during a half year, and the reverse relationship was also correct. The mixture of PS's discharged from the 16 mills, as is in practice, contained 25.0% CaO, which was classified into the range of (B) and would formed hydroxysodalite. We proposed a new technique in order to obtain zeolite from the PS mixture for industrial output, in which 1.0M Si was added to the alkali solution with the PS mixture.

Keywords: zeolite, paper sludge, calcite, talc, kaolinite