October 2003 Abstracts

Taking Action Against Climate Change - Away from the Extraordinary Society of the Second Half of the 20th Century
Yutaka Tonooka
Prof. Faculty of Economics Saitama University

 The second half of the 20th Century was an extraordinary age of global scale mass consumption resulting in depletion of resources and simultaneous environmental pollution caused by big business competition of global capitalism. It was an unprecedented experience not only within human history but also that of the Earth, injuring the Earth's system itself, for example, ozone layer depletion, climate change, pollution due to chemical products and so on. Many argue for a shift towards "Sustainable development" but it is extremely difficult to move to a sustainable society directly from the 20th century which is ideologically almost the complete opposite. It may be impossible to find the path to a sustainable society leading from the preceding part of the 20th Century, without a drastic revolution in our way of business society. In this short note the extremes of the second half of the 20th Century are discussed and suggestions made for the starting point for a sustainable society for the next millennium. Taking action against climate change might be just one of significant departures away from the prior development patterns of the 20th Century.

Global Warming Issues with Pulp and Paper Industry in Japan
Takuro Ueda
Paper Industry, Consumer and Recreational Goods Division, Manufacturing Industries Bureau, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry

 To fulfill the commitment of the Kyoto Protocol adopted in December 1997, the promotion of measures on the global warming is a critical issue in the field of pulp and paper industry, which is one of the major energy users. However, investments on environment field such as energy conservation have not been so active, because of the recent situation of overall economy and individual corporate profit. Thus, for pulp and paper industry, it is essential not only to deal with environmental issues, but also to strengthen its competitive advantages. In order to realize these, we have to fully understand situations and problems that the industry is facing. From this viewpoint, government's policy measures, current situation and issues of the industry, and the strategy for strengthening its competitiveness are discussed.

How to Evaluate Carbon Sequestration by Forests
Takao Fujimori
Japan Forest Technology Association

 Enhancing carbon sequestration by forests is important for mitigation of global carbon dioxide. However, it is always necessary to consider the relationship between carbon sequestration and carbon stock. Enhancing carbon sequestration and maximizing carbon stock are both important for the strategies for mitigation of carbon dioxide.
 Carbon sequestration rate and amount of carbon accumulation vary according to forest stand development stage, and the peak of sequestration rate and the highest level of carbon stock cannot be realized at the same time. The peak of carbon sequestration rate is fond in young stage, while highest carbon stock is found in old-growth stage. So the target stand structure for enhancing carbon sequestration should be aimed from young stage to mature stage, while that for maintaining high carbon stock should be aimed in old-growth-stage.
 Enhancing carbon sequestration can be realized by forest management for timber production and maintaining high carbon stock can be realized by preservation of forest ecosystems. Energy for processing materials can be reduced by using timber for materials and the consumption of fossil fuels can be reduced by using wood for energy. Using wood is important for establishing recycling-based society.

Strategies for Compliance with the Kyoto Protocol from Private Companies’ Point of View
Kuniyuki Nishimura
Mitsubishi Research Institute Inc.

 The Kyoto protocol is expected to enter into forth in 2004 and if so Japan will be required to reduce greenhouse gas emission by 6% from the 1990 level in the first commitment period (from 2008 through 2012).The unit cost of CO2 reduction is high in Japan because of advanced energy saving measures already put in place and reduction, if attempted to achieve only with domestic measures, would impose great burdens on industries.
 This paper discusses the importance of studying strategies and their possible direction, giving consideration to future enterprises’ strategies to cope with the Kyoto protocol.

Future Development in Comprehensive Risk Managementof Chemical Substance−Self-management and Human Resource Enrichment−
Masaru Masuda, Ph. D.
Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture Engineering

 Discussions on risk management of chemical substances have been repeated among international organizations such as OECD from 1970’s, and have resulted in establishing various concepts, principles and systems. Based on such trends, I have proposed a concept of "Comprehensive Risk Management of Chemical Substances" making full use of scientific knowledge and logical thinking. Self-management, mainstay of the concept of "Comprehensive Risk Management of Chemical Substances," has achieved great result.
 Future trend can be predicted by observing the activities of the international organizations, and through logical thinking based on scientific knowledge. First come will seize the opportunity and contribute to positive growth in management.
 Construction of new science on "Comprehensive Risk Management of Chemical Substances" that discuss such matters from a bird’s-eye point of view has been attempted, and human resource enrichment based on this new science is enfolding.

Necessity of Scientifically and Technically Sound Management of PRTR Designated Chemicals
Yoshitaka Hoshikawa
Chemical Risk Consultants

 First Data Sets of Japanese Pollutants Release and Transfer Registry (PRTR) System under the Law concerning Reporting, etc. of Releases to the Environment of Specific Chemical Sub-stances and Promoting Improvements in Their Management (Law for PRTR and Promotion of Chemical Management) has been published on March 20th, 2003 and there are some intentional activities urging industries on the reduction of their environmental releases.
 Considering these circumstances, we talk here about scientifically and technically sound management of PRTR designated chemicals, from points of compliance with the guidance provided by the law, voluntary setting of targets for environmental releases, and risk communication.

Soil Contamination Countermeasures Law-The Present Status of Legislation in Japan and Contamination Risk Management-
Seiji Aoki
Geo-Environment Department, Environmental Control Center co., Ltd.

 Soil contamination has been one of seven typical environmental problems and the existing law was targeting only land for agricultural use. The new law, Soil Contamination Countermeasures Law, which covers land of any kinds of use, is now effective. The law specifies minimum requirements for preventing health hazards and its objects are very narrowed. If you make a survey on the land strictly with the minimum requirements specified by the law, there are chances of missing some existing contamination. It will be very risky, when you want to do business with the land. It will be advisable that you would make an enough extra survey, taking into account its historical uses.

Recent Study on Water Quality Standards for the Conservation of Aquatic Life
Keiko Segawa
Deputy Director, Water Management Division, Ministry of the Environment

 The Expert Committee on the Water Quality Standards for the Conservation of Aquatic Life recently launched its report on the technical matters and framework. The report presents basic ideas on methods to set target figures to protect aquatic life from pollution by heavy metals and chemical substances in rivers and other water areas. Especially, this report points out the necessity of setting Water Quality Standard on Zn, and Precautionary Monitoring Targets for formaldehyde, phenol and chloroform. The contents of this report should be discussed in the Water Management board in the Central Environment Council in this summer.

The Latest Web Inspection System and its Possibilities-Technology and Directivity of NASP-Multi 500 System-
Masahiro Nakata
OMRON Corporation, Technology Development, Vision System Business DIV.

 The web inspection system of OMRON renewed the technology of a detection part, and accomplished change further as next generation system, NASP-Multi500.
 The basic thought used as the base of the detection part is Platform-though. That is, by mounting logical & software in basic digital hardware as a firmware, variable of the logic becomes possible and it can reply to the daily demand in the paper manufacture industry. As for detection algorithm, digital image processing of our company original development is incorporated. It is mainly the fault from which a light fault, a streak fault, and etc. serves as the object.
 Thus, the web inspection system is developed in our company every day, catching a demand of the paper manufacture industry exactly.

Development of Tesa EasySplice FastLine
Seiya Okamoto, Kashiwabara Yuki and Mukasa Munetaka
Tesatape k.k.

 We introduced EasySplice FastLine for paper splicing at the last JTAPPI conference in Yonago.
 Fortunately we’ve got many users of the tape in the Paper Industry. We are very happy that we could serve to the Industry through new technology.
 In this session I inform of the world wide achievements of technical and business results.
 Then I’ll explain the pasting mechanism of EasySplice and introduce some technical problems we had and solutions we gave for them.
 At the end of lecture I’d like to speak about the development of EasySplice technology. We are going to launch a new product for auto-preparation robot of paper splicing. It has new concept best suitable for mechanical process though conventional EasySplice is the most suitable for manual preparation.

Determination of the Surface Layer of Kraft Pulp Fibers by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)
Tetsuaki Okamoto and Gyosuke Meshitsuka
Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo

 The surfaces of commercial softwood kraft pulp fibers were observed by FE-SEM to determine the surface layers of the fibers. Unbleached pulp fibers were covered by fibrils running in random fashion, and the fibrils sometimes extended to a pit area, which were characteristics of the primary wall. The existence of primary wall on the surfaces of unbleached kraft pulp fibers would cause the higher lignin content of the surfaces of the fibers than that of the whole fibers. Large parts of the primary wall were removed during bleaching process, and the fibrils running densely perpendicular to the fiber axis were observed on full bleached pulp fibers, which was a characteristic of the outer layer of secondary wall. The degree of the primary wall removal was different between the pulp samples. In one pulp sample, large amount of the primary wall was removed during oxygen delignification stage, although, in another pulp sample, some removal took place during oxygen delignification stage.

Key words: kraft pulp, fiber surface, primary wall, secondary wall, fibril, FE-SEM

Life Cycle Assessment of Papers Used for Environmental Reports
Katsuhito Nakazawa and Kohei Yamada
Japan Science and Technology Corporation
Toru Katsura and Hiroaki Niwata
Mitsubishi Paper Mills, Ltd.
Keiichi Katayama
Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University
Itaru Yasui
Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo

 The number of companies that published their environmental reports have increased in recent years, and the recycled paper containing a larger amount of DIP (Deinked pulp) with lower degree of brightness is used to print them for environmental concerns. In this study, several different kinds of paper used for environmental reports of many companies were investigated, and their environmental loads and environmental impacts were evaluated by LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) method.
 As for the characteristics of paper of eight environmental reports, paper containing 100% DIP was used for seven reports, and coated paper was used for three reports. Compared with non-coated paper and coated paper, total CO2 emission caused by coated paper through its life cycle was estimated larger because of the large CO2 emission from the manufacturing of related chemicals such as latex. As a result of LCI (Life Cycle Inventory) analysis of five kinds of paper used in environmental reports, it was observed that the total energy consumption of paper containing 100% DIP was smaller than those of paper containing wood and non-wood pulp. The evaluation with respect to CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption showed that the CO2 emissions caused by paper containing wood and non-wood pulp were smaller than that caused by paper containing 100% DIP. Regarding LCIA (Life Cycle Impact Assessment), with use of EPS 2000 and Panel method relatively little difference was seen among the environmental impacts of five different kinds, while it was shown by Eco-indicator 99 that the environmental impacts of paper with wood and non-wood pulp were larger than those of the others.
 For more detailed study, it is desirable to conduct LCA by considering land use in relation to sustainable forest management, and biomass energy as renewable energy source.

Key words:Environmental report, Coated paper, Life cycle assessment, Life cycle inventory analysis, Life cycle impact assessment