TAPPI JOURNALVol. 57, No.4
April 2003 Abstracts
KAMYR Technology − Past, Present and Future
KVAERNER PULPING KK
Kvaerner Pulping is the successor of KAMYR, and the company has been the actual
founder of modern pulping technology.
In this paper, some of the milestones of achievements of KAMYR are listed, however
the focus is not on the history but on today and on the future, although I believe
having a rich history in a very strong advantage in designing for the future.
I will give an overview of the big trends in the pulping industry and today’s
spearhead technology from Kvaerner Pulping.
Kvaerner Pulping considers the guiding stars of today in the further development
of the supplier industry are "Simplification", "Software/Process
solutions" and "Flexibility".
Kamyr has the history ? Kvaerner has the future and we will intensity and accelerate
our efforts in the field of R&D.
New Screens for Simplification and Power Saving of Screening Process
Aikawa Iron Works Co., Ltd.
As an international environmental protection movement rising, power saving has
been one of the major subjects to be concerned for the stock preparation field
for paper board and de-inking in these several years. And today, there is an
another strong requirement of power saving according to the background of the
international agreement for CO2 reduction, and also for improvement of cost reduction
in order to cope with global price competition and so on. For the waste paper
treatment, as el known that the screening process occupies a large portion of
energy consumption. It is estimated that the power consumption of screen process
is 3 to 3.5KW/Ton for the stock preparation of the paper board, and 4 to 6KW/Ton
for the de-inking plant. This paper reports about new screens, which are called
as "Screen-One, Two and Three", "GFD GranFlow" and "CanisterScreen" With
these screens, the screening system is simplified and dramatic power saving can
The Application of High Speed Paper Making Technology
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, LTD., Paper & Printing Machinery Division
A new Mitsubishi high-speed paper machine development project has started in
1999 and the new product is called MJ series to produce quality paper at 2000
m/min operation speed. The MJ series has been developed in the course of the
elementary study, program simulation, model test, and final verification on our
pilot paper machine in Mitsubishi R&D center of Mihara, Japan.
This paper presents the several challenges we were faced with when we tried
high-speed operation on our pilot machine and also presents some useful products
for stable operation.
Analysis of Forms and Distributions of the Paper Chemicals on Paper−The Approach
with Novel Equipments−
Research & Development Center, Arakawa Chemical Industries, Ltd.
The fixing of paper chemicals (sizing agent and/or strengthening agent) has
been evaluated, in terms of "quantity", such as content % in paper,
and the form of fixation has not intensely studied.
Also, the fundamental observations of detailed pulp structure and distribution
of paper chemicals on the pulp were not simple tasks.
In recent years, the progress of analytical technologies has been enabling the
detail evaluation of paper and/or pulp surface in simple process and the observation
of paper chemicals on the micro-fibril has become possible.
The newest analysis results for forms and distributions of sizing agent and/or
strengthening agent on the paper and/or pulp fiber by utilizing X-ray Photoelectron
Spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is reported in this presentation.
Observation of the Configuration of Binder Latex in Coating Layer-Direct Observation
Technology of Binder-
Kenji Arai, Yoko Saito, Hideki Touda and Jyunji Kasai
R&D Center, ZEON CORPORATION
Printability of coated paper is influenced by the coating structure in which
the binder plays an important role. It was therefore tried to observe closely
the configuration of binder latex in coating layer. The inorganic pigments, which
constitute a large portion of coating layer, were dissolved and removed by using
hydrochloric acid and hydrogen fluoride acid. By taking this process, the configuration
of binder latex in coating layer could be observed directly, without unnecessary
effect of pigments. Electron Probe Micro Analysis showed that there was no residual
pigment in coating layer (after the process above). Upon preparing samples for
cross-section observation, Focused Ion Beam equipment and Cryo-ultramicrotome
were used, to decrease the risk of damaging binder-latex’s configuration. This
observation demonstrated that binder latex form three-dimensional network structure,
holding the pigments inside of the coating layer. Using Cryo-ultramicrotome,
an ultra-thin film of the coating layer was also prepared from the cross-section,
and observed through Transmission Electron Microscope(TEM). Furthermore, the
application of this cross-sectional observation technique to commercial double-coated
paper is presented in this paper.
Method of Pest Control in Food and Medicine Factory
Ikari Institute of Applied Biology, IKARI CORPORATION
In Food and Medicine Factory, There are four major factors of pest control.
These factors are the following, reinforce the structure for pest control, maintenance
the structure, monitoring pests, and extermination of pests. And more important
thing is that those factors should be carried out in PDCA cycle.
The Renewal of Electrical Equipments for Paper Industries
and Saving Energy
Industrial Systems Engineering Department,
Toshiba GE Automation Systems Corporation
The first installation of the sectional drive system of a paper machine by Toshiba
was in the year of 1951.And then the DC drive system of thyristor Leonard had
been applied to the drive system of the paper machine. And the sectional drive
system has been developed dramatically to the fully digital controlled AC drives
systems today. The latest system has the great advantage to the conventional
systems, but the renewal to the latest system from the existing system have not
frequently occurred due to the restriction of the period of shutdown, the initial
cost of renewal, and other factors. Actually the existing system automatically
have been getting old and old, so the reliability of the equipments have been
getting poor and poor.
In order to recover the reliability, the drive equipments should be renewed.
If the equipments are not renewed, many problems would appear. The spare parts
of the equipments may not be manufactured any more, and the number of technicians
who can handle the equipments is getting smaller, and the down time of the paper
machine may cause the reduction of the production of paper. The predictive maintenance
and renewal of the equipments should be usually planed. It is not easy to renew
the existing equipments at one time, so the gradual renewal should be considered
with paying attention to the hybrid system.
This article explains the points to be considered at the renewal of the drive
systems for paper industries and the saving energy by applying the medium voltage
inverter to fans and pumps with the merit of the inverter.
SPM Shock Pulse Method for Diagnostic System of Rotating Roll Bearing
Nomura Shoji Co., Ltd.
Roll bearings are commonly used in rotating machines, and vibration method is
often employed for monitoring condition of roll bearings. Though vibration method
needs high skill and long time to compare abnormal condition to normal one, diagnostic
result is not enough to obtain real condition of roll bearings. Shock pulse method
, SPM, was developed in 1969 in Sweden with further innovation till today, and
is now world widely accepted philosophy for condition monitoring of roll bearings
and machine maintenance.
SPM diagnostics reports not only condition of rotating roll bearings but also
thickness of lubricating oil, that helps maintenance staff to know proper lubrication
for getting longer life of roll bearings and for performing effective preventive
maintenance in proper timing.
Trend in Mechanical Seal Technology in Pulp and Paper Plant−Mechanical Seal for
Slurry Liquid Application−
EAGLE INDUSTRY Co., Ltd., Seal Engineering Dept.
In a pulp and paper plant, a large number of water pumps and various different
pumps for pulp or chemicals are utilized in the production processes from economical
point of view (energy saving, resource saving and maintenance saving) and environment
preservation point of view. Mechanical Seals are also utilized for other rotating
equipment including agitators, screens and refineries. This text describes Mechanical
Seals which are utilized for a lot of slurry pumps and mills in a pulp and paper
BTF Dilution Headbox System−Application Report on BTF Dilution System−
Design Section, Kawanoe Zoki Co., Ltd.
BTF system has been installed on more than 100 machines in Europe, the USA and
on grades from Kraft board to lightweight tissue and furnishes from ground wood
to cotton liners, at machine speeds from 15m/min to 1200 m/min. Many of these
installations are central distributor or dilution control retrofits to existing
head boxes, while others are complete systems including a new head box. Retrofits
have been made to existing head boxes from more than a dozen different suppliers,
on roll head boxes as well as hydraulic head boxes. Central distributor systems
and dilution control systems have also been installed on cylinder machines with
open vats, and on multi-ply board formers.
The Effect of Mill Closure on Properties of Mechanical Fines
Yasuyuki Kamijo and Takanori Miyanishi
Pulp & Paper Research Laboratory, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
The effect of dissoloved and colloidal substances (DCS) in TMP (thermomechanical
pulp) white water on the strength properties of handsheets and the flocculation
capability of fines with retention aids were investigated.
For this experiment, two types of fines were prepared. One is water-washed TMP
fines and the other is white-water TMP fines which were fractionated with TMP
white water. Breaking length and surface strength of the handsheets containing
water-washed TMP fines were higher than that of the handsheets containing white
water TMP fines. It is suggested that DCS adsorbed on white water TMP fines had
a detrimental influence on fiber bonding.
The extent of flocculation of fines in the white water of a newsprint machine
was measured by Photometric Dispersion Analyzer (PDA). The results of flocculation
experiments showed that fines extracted with acetone were more easily flocculated
with cationic retention aids than fines in white water. The molecular weight
of retention aids affected the flocculation of the fines in white water.
It is concluded that DCS has negative effects on sheet strength and on the flocculation
of fines with retention aids.
Keywords: thermomechanical pulp, fines, dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS),
sheet strength, flocculation
Manufacturing of Magnetic Papermaking Fibers and Paper(Part II) −Preparation
of Ferrite-Loaded Pulps at their Lumen by in situ Synthesis*−
Paper Industrial Research Institute of Ehime Prefecture
Magnetic pulps loaded with ferrite (M2+OFe3+2O3) in the pulp lumen were prepared
by in situ synthesis. First the basic conditions for preparation of manganese-ferrite,
zinc-ferrite and manganese-zinc-ferrite by in situ synthesis were clarified;
alkali was added to a pulp suspension containing ferrous salt and divalent metal
ion, followed by oxidization of the pulp suspension through air-bubbling at temperature
lower than 100°C. The amount of divalent metal ion added was stoichiometrically
controlled for co-precipitation of the ferrite. New procedures to prepare ferrite-loaded
pulps at their lumen were then developed on the basis of the obtained conditions.
Manganese-ferrite was formed at temperature of more than 50°C, 60°C and 80°C,
when the equivalent value of the alkali added was about 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 times,
respectively, as much as that of the ferrous salt present in the pulp suspension.
Meanwhile, zinc-ferrite and manganese-zinc-ferrite were formed in a narrow range
of the alkali addition level at temperature of more than 50°C, where the equivalent
value of the alkali required was approximately 1.0-1.1 times as much as that
of ferrous ion.
The contents of manganese-ferrite, zinc-ferrite and manganese-zinc-ferrite in
the loaded pulps were 30.9±2 wt%, 32.4±2 wt% and 36.2±2 wt%, respectively. These
contents were close to or slightly higher than that of magnetite-loaded pulps
reported in our previous paper. The lumen-loaded pulp with 30.9% manganese-ferrite
content had saturation magnetization, remnant magnetization and coercive force
values of 15.8 emu/g (based on the manganese-ferrite-loaded pulp), 3.2 emu/g
and 107 Oe, respectively. On the other hand, the lumen-loaded pulp with 36.2%
manganese-zinc-ferrite content had the corresponding values of 21.4 emu/g, 4.7
emu/g and 119 Oe, respectively.
Keywords: Magnetic paper making pulp, Ferrite lumen-loading, Pulp lumen, in situ
synthesis, Ferrite, Manganese-ferrite, Zinc-ferrite, Manganese-zinc-ferrite