November 2002 Abstracts

Cationic rosin size for weakly acidic and neutral papermaking
Muneo Sakamoto and Che On Au Nissan-Eka Chemicals Co., Ltd.

 High levels of calcium carbonate in waste furnishes and increased contaminants in the closed backwater systems have set new demands on rosin sizing in neutral pH. Eka Chemicals have developed new sizing systems to meet these challenges :
・Rosin ester (Bewoid Extra)
・Use PAC (Ekafloc) instead of alum
・Rosin aluminium pre-mix (Bewomix System)
・Cationic rosin size (Composize)
 Cationic rosin size, consisting of rosin particles stabilised by cationic polyelectrolytes via protective colloid action, represent the best approach to rosin sizing at neutral conditions. Due to its self-retention property, cationic rosin size can give superior sizing efficiency, reduction in alum usage, and improved machine runnability.

Keywords; Sizing at neutral pH, Cationic rosin size, Rosin ester, Rosin aluminium pre-mix, PAC

Blow through Steam Reductuons with the ‘Flonage’ System
Shigeo Miyata
Taimei Koki Co.,Ltd.
Spirax Sarco (Japan)Ltd.

 The ‘Flonage’ System is the system which brings a dryer perfect condition, by controlling blow rate with a separator and steam flow meter installed on the downstream of the dryer.
 The ‘Flonage’ system enables heating pressure (temperature), revolving speed and steam blow rate to be standardized in figures. Also, this system is highly effective in optimizing energy consumption rate by minimizing steam blow rate to downstream.
 Advantages of the ‘Flonage’ system are as follows.
1. Easy standardization by optimizing blow rate in figures for a best manufacturing condition.
2. Stable production by blowing quantitatively, no matter how pressure fluctuation on the downstream is.
3. Minimizes energy consumption unit by the decreasing unnecessary steam blow.
4. Improves boiling in the condensate tank.

Development of High Corrosion-resist Surfaces for Metering Roll
Norio Fujita and Yasuhiro Mochida
Nomura Plating Co., LTD

 We reported corrosive phenomenon of metering roll from an electrochemical standpoint last year. Its result showed a few combinations of top-coat and under-coat may show higher corrosion resistance than conventional coating. So actual corrosion resistance was verified by corrosion test in dynamic condition with test plant size machine. As a result, Cr coating on Ni-W alloy coating showed superior corrosion resistance.

Advantages of the Flexishaft for Progressing Cavity Pump in Paper and Pulp
Toru Iwata
Iwaki Co., Ltd. Promotion Department.

 For the color coating process in Pulp & paper industry, lots of pumps are installed. Among these pumps, Progress-Cavity pump is mostly prevailed.
 "Mono Pump" company of United Kingdom have succeeded to develop new kinds of joint, called flexishaft less joint, which is very far from conventional idea of joint.
 The flexishaft has no wearing parts as a new construction of oil-less. That created the advantage of Progress-Cavity pump and makes it easy handling.
 We now would like to explain the effects of the flexishaft for Progress-Cavity pump.

Trend in Mechanical Seal Technology in Pulp and Paper Plant Failure and Countermeasure Examples of Mechanical Seal
Hidekazu Takahashi
EAGLE INDUSTRY Co., Ltd. Seal Engineering Dept.

 In a pulp and paper plant, a large number of water pumps and various different pumps for pulp or chemicals are utilized in the production processes from economical point of view (energy saving, resource saving and maintenance saving) and environment preservation point of view. Mechanical Seals are also utilized for other rotating equipment including agitators, screens and refineries. This text describes failure and countermeasure examples of Mechanical Seal for pulp and paper industry.

Latest Activity of Algas Microfilter−The Reference Report from Japanese Market−
Yasuo Harikae
Itochu Sanki Corporation

 In compliance with social requirements on environmental protection, pollution control for water at a pulp and paper mill is becoming more and more important. Also, water consumption need to be decreased in light of material resource saving as well as production cost saving.
 Under the circumstance, not less than 500 Algas Micro-Filters (AMF) are running all over the world and we have installed 14 AMF in Japan since 1998. AMF can contribute to re-use fibers, clear water and additives from white water, effluent water etc. and to reduce cost of water treatment as well as water discharge.
 This report is to explain the basic construction and features of AMF and the successful references of AMF installation in Japan.

E.C.H. Will Model "GFS" Global Folio-size Sheeter
Mamoru Fukumoto
K. K. Irisu

 Since 135years E.C.H.Will Hamburg is one of the leading manufacturers of converting machinery for the paper industry.The company has gained worldwide acknowledgement when introducing cut size sheeters for copy paper. These machines are used worldwide by all well-known paper makers and also in the meantime by smaller paper converting companies.
 With regard to folio size sheeter E.C.H.Will was and is reknown for special solutions instead. Based on and with the knowhow of hundreds of cut size sheeters and some hundred folio size sheeters having been delivered, the concept of the Will "global folio size sheeter" type GFS has been developed.
 The great technical experience in cutting and transporting paper as well as introducing innovative ideas, new materials and, last but not least, the influence of various customers' requests, which are known to E.C.H.Will from numerous special projects, were the base for development of the GFS folio sheeter.

Introduction of Calculation Soft for Pressure Dropping in the Transportation Piping of Liquid Pulp Sigeru Saito
Engineering Group ,KITZ Corporation

 Generally speaking, the pressure dropping degree of pulp liquid depends upon the nominal size of piping and concentration, speed and freeness of the liquid.
 On the equipment designing, the calculation of pressure dropping is one of the most important things in selections of pump and nominal size of piping and control valves, however, as indicated in the Figure 1, it seems very difficult to calculate manually in each case.
 Upon the requests from our customers and under the above situation, we have developed the unique calculation soft with our own invention, in order to realize an easy calculation by the personal computer.
 It has already been introduced for some particular customers, but we, hereby, would like to make it open for all customers. We are very pleased, if this soft could be useful for you.

Fibers, Fillers and Fines Recovery from the Process Water Coming from Paper Machines and Stok Preparation- O.M.C."GAMMAFILTER"-
Takefumi Ide
Taizen Co., LTD.

 The GAMMAFILTER assures, compared with the traditional filters, a very large filterring
surface (6 times larger), thank to the particular shape of the wires.
The suspended materials settle in the inner side of the drum, which constantly and slowly
 turns around its axis, forming a layer, whose thickness grows gradually as the drum dips into the water.That operation improves the filtering action, too. If necessary, some chemicals can beadded in the feeding to optimize the coagulation or the flocculation.Thanks to a level difference of 30cm max from the inner and the outer part of the drum,which can be adjusted by a mechanical overflow, the water naturally flows by gravitytowards two symmetrical lateral purges.
 The suspended solids contained in the water settle on the wires and create a layer whichstays on them.

High Rate Nitrogen Removal Process by Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor"PABIO DENI"
Masahiro Kaji
Proposal Department, Environmental Systems Division, Shinko Pantec Co., Ltd.

 The necessity for nitrogen removal is increasing from the viewpoint of eutrophication control in recent years. Although a Modified activated sludge process was prevalent in the nitrogen removal process, since there are some faults such as long Hydraulic retention time (HRT), the various efficient process of replacing with this process have come to be developed and put in practical use. We put in practical use nitrogen removal process, PABIO DENI, which is the fluidized bed using the carrier elements made from polyethylene as a moving carrier elements. This process has the characteristics that the treatment in the HRT of 1/2 to 1/3 of the modified activated sludge process is possible, the high nitrogen removal efficiency is acquired at 10℃, and it can be adapted for the various forms of existing reactors, etc.
 A demonstration tests confirmed efficient and high treatment capability such as a high removal ratio as 98 % or above with volumetric loading 0.9 kg-NH4-N /m3・d for nitrification and with 3.5 kg-NO3-N /m3・d for denitrification, the nitrogen in treated water becomes below 10 mg / L even if HRT is 5 hrs.
 In this report, while an outline of the principle, the structure and the treatment method of the fluidized bed nitrogen removal process is introduced, a part of the demonstration test result is reported.

Keyworld: Nitrification,Denitrification,Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor, Carrier Elements

Current Progress in Plant Genome Research and Tree Biotechnology-Present and Future Prospects-
Yoshihiro Katayama
Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering (BASE), Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

 Progress in molecular biology in the 1980s brings enable us to analyze various type of biological nature of plants at the molecular (DNA) level. Genetic engineering based on the molecular biological techniques provided exciting opportunity to produce transgenic plants and mutant lines with altered phenotypes and to better understanding the physiology, biochemistry of plants. Furthermore, much of knowledge how plant grow and develop has been gained from research in genome area such as complete genome sequence Arabidopsis thaliana that is being used worldwide as a model organism for basic and applied research in plant biology. Likewise, novel approaches such as express sequence tags, genome sequencing and enhancing traditional strategies for woody plant research. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of tree biotechnology and the areas currently being researched on biosynthesis of cell wall.

Report on 2002 TAPPPI Coating Conference-Recent Trend of Coating Technologies−
Akio Okagawa, Ph. D.
Noah Enterprise Limited

 TAPPI 2002 Coating and Graphic Arts Conference and Trade Fair was held at Rosen Center in Orland, Florida on May 5 to 8, 2002. More than 600 people of paper industry and allied industry from all over the world attended the conference. This report summarizes the contents of the conference. Recent developments of non-impact coating such as curtain coating and spray coating are almost reality. It is the matter of time we will see an actual installation near future. Further new technologies presented at the conference is dry coating using electrostatic force and thermo-mechanical treatment. Number of new developments on coating pigment, especially engineered type kaolin and calcium carbonate, latex binders and various chemicals to improve coating operation were also presented.

Techniques for analyzing paper properties by applying image processing to light transmission image
Tomohito Nakayama, Toshiharu Enomae and Fumihiko Onabe
Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences
Contact e-mail address: enomae@psl.fp.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp

The pattern matching technique is applied to light transmission images to analyze paper properties and its versatility is demonstrated. A prototype system developed for obtaining light transmission images consists of a CCD camera, diffuse illumination from the backside of a specimen and software. In pattern matching, one of the two images to be compared is divided into small rectangular blocks. The other image is searched for a block with a similar pattern to one of the blocks of the first image taken as a template block while the block frame is moved pixel for pixel. The similarity is judged based on the inner product of the two block images as a vector. Ten-fold interpolation with the high-resolution bi-cubic spline interpolation function is successfully applied to estimate the deformation distribution with ten-fold precision. In-plane distribution of tensile deformation is measured well even for paper with good formation. This technique is applied to in-plane distribution of restraint drying shrinkage of wetted copy paper. When a paper specimen is set and constrained vertically, every block around the center of the specimen totally shifted upward. It is because water moves downward by gravitational force, resulting in that the top part that dries and shrinks earlier draws the fiber network mostly from the flexible wet part immediately below. Thermography proves the water movement as a portion of low temperature due to absorption of evaporation heat remains to the last moment around the bottom part. On the contrary, when set horizontally, the specimen does not exhibit any total shift in the restraint direction, but shows shrinkage only in CD as well as observed with the specimen set vertically. For free drying of the copy paper, a flatbed image scanner was used to acquire images. The shrinkage tends to occur in a complicated manner, distorted by mixture of CD and MD shrinkages.

Biobleaching of Kenaf and Shirakaba Pulps by Wood-rot Fungi
Yoshito Ohtani, Yoko Ohmae, Jareeya Yimrattanabovorn and Kazuhiko Sameshima
Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University

 White rot fungi OM5-1 and KUF2 isolated from the experimental forest of Kochi University had high abilities to brighten the kenaf bark pulp and the shirakaba pulp, respectively. Bleachabilities of both fungi were compared with those of standard fungi, i.e. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus. Brightness increase of kenaf bark pulp by OM5-1 was much larger than that estimated from kappa number decrease. The similar tendency was observed when the shirakaba kraft pulp was bleached by KUF2. Bleachability of kenaf core pulp by fungi was not similar to that of kenaf bark pulp, but to that of shirakaba pulp.
 Cumulative activities of ligninolytic enzymes from each of above four fungi had linear relation to the pulp brightness increase obtained by each fungus treatment. But, during later periods of treatment only the kenaf bark pulp showed higher brightness out of this linear relationship.
 For kenaf bark pulp and shirakaba pulp, OM5-1 and KUF2 showed the highest pulp viscosities, respectively.

Keywords: kenaf bark pulp, kenaf core pulp, biobleaching, white-rot fungi, ligninolytic enzyme activity