October 2002 Abstracts

Environmental Communication and Industries
Mami Oku
Associate Professor ,Environmental Policy Group, Faculty of Environmental Studies
Nagasaki University

 Environmental Communication is an exchange of environmental information among different actors, i.e. citizens, industry, public authorities and NGOs, to establish between them a partnership for the realisation of a sustainable society. For companies, it is a challenge to promote the communication of environmental information, the provision of which is not legally required but discretionary. In conducting economic activities, industries are consuming natural resources that are the common asset of all global citizens. In other words, citizens entrust the use of natural resources to industries in return for the fruits of their activities in the form of products or services. This means that citizens have a right to know and companies are accountable for providing information about the interrelations between companies’ economic activities and the environment. In order for industries to properly take this responsibility in contributing to citizens’ right to know, it is essential for them to grasp stakeholders’ needs on corporate environmental information by promoting environmental communication. A study by the Ministry of Environment entitled ‘Research on Industries’ Environmentally Benign Activities’ shows that companies have become increasingly aware of the importance of environmental communication in recent years. In future, for companies to promote environmental communication in an even more efficient and effective way, there are several points that need to be borne in mind. These are to: 1) define the stakeholders and aim of information provision, and choose the content and tools accordingly, 2) ensure comparability, credibility, objectivity and transparency of information, 3) add some originality to information provided as well as include negative information and 4) draw a future vision of the social role or responsibility that the company wishes to take and of the relationships that it wishes to develop with society.

The Yokohama Enviroment Protection Agreement and The Ideas
TamotsuAndo Enviromental Management Division Enviromental Protection Bureau of City of Yokohama

 Yokohama City had started the construction of reclamation of Negishi Bay in 1959.In the reclamation area, large factories of electric power plant, gas industry, petroleum refinery, petrochemical industry, electrical industry, machine industry, and ship construction etc, were expected to be build. However, expansion of air pollution by the factories was anxious.
 However, under the laws, Yokohama City did not have any rights to control or lead pollution stationary at that time. Then the city has agreed to have the contract "Pollution Control Agreement" with the companies based on science data and public opinions. The pollution control agreement has been contracted with Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. Isogo thermal power station first 1974, it has been applied to supplement pollution related laws and made good result, so it still has been
 Contracted with many self-governing bodies since then.
 As the situation surrounding Yokohama has been changed greatly from the agreement established, we are going to propose this agreement as "Environmental Protection Agreement" with considering the relationship among people ecosystem and global environment as well as supplement the laws relating to environmental pollution.

Corporate Environmental Communication-From the viewpoint of Non Governmental Organizations-
Tsunoda Kimie
Member of Steering Committee, Valdez Society

 Sharing information is the prerequisite of the environmental communication. Qualitative aspects of general disclosure, for example, relevance, reliability, understandability, comparability, verifiability and clarify, are also fulfilled with the environmental disclosure. The sender of information should be grasped the " 6W1H" points.
 According to the survey against companies certificated ISO14001 in Japan in 1999, they didn't always positively environmental disclosure and communication in spite of researchers' hypothesis. Companies certificated ISO14001 should be positively promoted the environmental disclosure and communication.
 Corporate environmental reports (CERs), the base belong some corporate discloser’s media, are published more and more in Japan. For readers, it is difficult to compare various CERs even them in similar industries, so I'd like to expect to develop common item or indices for much comparability in CERs by industries or industrial associations.
 Chemical Risk Communication is took notice of recently in Japan with the enforcement PRTR Low. Chemical Risk Communication is the interactive process between corporate and stakeholders to promote understanding and construct credibility. Stakeholders wish not only safety but also peace of mind against chemical risk. Companies should be promoted communication to bring stakeholders' peace of mind.

Practice of Environment Communication
Sachio Otoshi
Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.

 It will be important to the practice of environmental communication with community for industries after the making public of the emission of harmful chemical substances form facilities. We call it risk communication. Industries must explain the risk of these emissions and improve the understanding of the community. This paper explains about what are hazard and risk, and the process of risk communication.

The Future View for Establishing the Recycling-Based Society
Morishita Ken
Eco-Management Institute

 In the 21st century, there is increasing pressure to move away from the current socio~economic system, which is based on mass production, mass consumption, and mass disposal and to establish an environmentally sound, sustainable society. In order for this to take place, the voluntary and positive efforts of businesses that play a significant role in socio~economic activities are crucial.
 For businesses, management benefits can be achieved, through operating business of higher quality such as a reduction in the consumption of resources and energy, less disposal of wastes, or by providing environmentally conscious products and services.
 In recent years, it has become increasingly aware that businesses have social obligation to disclose their own environmental information. The importance of publishing and disclosing environmental reporting, which summarizes the state of environmental management, environmental performance, environmental accounting information, and also promoting environmental communication with stakeholders, e.g. consumers, investors, customers, local public, has been increased.

RPF: Its present state and future
Katsushiro Seki
Seki Shoten Co. Ltd.

 RPF(Refuse Paper & Plastic Fuel) is a fuel made of waste paper and plastics, and is attracting interest by its ecological character. Waste paper and waste plastics are reclaimed from big factories with great care on their sources. They are disintegrated separately to about 40 mm in size. Then, with a certain blending ratio, they are formed into pellets (8 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length). Its heat value is 6000-8000 kcal. These pellets are used as a solid fuel for boilers. The present monthly production is 10,000 tons, and capacity expansion projects are in sight. The demand is expected to be about 600,000 tons a year in 2005. The paper gives an outline on its production system.

Statistical Survey on Industrial Wastes and its Utilization in Pulp and Paper Mills in Japan
Masakazu Hatae
Environmental Technology, JAPAN TAPPI
Industrial Wastes Committee, Japan Paper Association
Environmental Protection Committee, Japan Paper Association

 Japan Paper Association surveys statistics on industrial wastes disposed from pulp and paper mills every year by sending a questionnaire to each mills. The result in the 2000 survey is as follows.
 1.The coverage is 88.4 %, based on the paper production volume. It is the highest figure in these several years.
 2.The total industrial waste generated, that is the sum of industrial waste reused and industrial waste finally disposed, increased 6 % in B.D. weight compared to that in the 1999 survey. It is due to paper production increase of 10 % in 2000.
 3.The waste reused rate is 81%. The waste finally disposed reduced 11% in B.D. weight compared to that in the 1999 survey.
 4.When compared to the 1989 survey, following improvements are remarked.
(1) The unit industrial waste generation is 22 % less than that in 1989.
(2) The water content of the industrial waste generated is reduced to 30% from 50% in 1989.
(3) The unit waste finally disposed is 80% less than that in 1989.
 5. The guideline by Japan Paper Association for waste reduction is that the waste finally disposed in 2010 should be reduced to 450 thousand tons (as it is) from 2537 thousand tons in 1990. It is 612 thousand tons in 2000.

Solution for Dryer-part Deposit Originated Spot Prevention Spot Generation Mechanism and Prevention Program
Akihisa Yamada
Maintech Co, Ltd.,Sales Engineering Div.

 The spot problem originated from deposition of pitch, stickies and latex in the dryer section is becoming a critical problem under the condition of high DIP furnish, closed system and alkalization. These spots lead to production problems and quality problems such as increase of broke and joint work. To date, not a few pitch control program have been tried, high-pressure fabric(canvas) cleaning showers and double doctoring have been developed. However none of them have met with industry wide acceptance.
Maintech has developed a spot prevention program, a total solution that passivates all surfaces in the dryer section where the deposition could grow up to cause spots. The program starts with M/C survey and interview to M/C tender to investigate spot generation process, then present a proposal which installs right equipment in right positions, uses right chemical products in right application methods. The resulting surface passivation prevents depositions on cylinder, fabric and calender rolls and reduce the number of spots in the paper drastically.
Mills can take considerable advantage from this program. Elimination of deposits in the dryer section reduces not only the number of joints in the finished rolls but also broke tonnage and down time for M/C cleaning.
 This paper reviews an investigation method of spot generation from dryer deposition. Case history illustrating gained benefits in a linerboard M/C is presented.

A Study of Print Mottle-Effect of Under Coated Layer on Double Coated Paper−
Tsutomu Kouno
Latex Research Center,Nippon A&L INC

 The relationship between print mottle of double coated paper and characteristic of under coated layer were studied.
 In this study on laboratory works, the influences of fiber coverage, surface roughness and water absorption rate of under coated layer on print mottle were considered with introducing the concept of critical fiber coverage ( CFC ) .
 Print mottle of double coated paper was influenced by fiber coverage and water absorption rate of under coated layer.
 This behavior is explained by the differences of water absorption rate between coated and uncoated part of base paper, whereas water absorption rate of under coated layer itself was influential over CFC.

"SHOWER ROLL"A Felt Cleaning Device
Toshio Kameyama
Aoki Machinery Co., Ltd, System Engineering Department

 We have mainly installed and modified paper machines and other peripheral devices since our company was established. Then, we have developed a breakthrough felt cleaning device.
 That is called "SHOWER ROLL" based on long experience and accumulated know-how. Lately,
 Importance has been placed on the recycle of papermaking materials. Under such circumstances
 most paper manufacturers are struggling against the problem of cleaning equipment resulting
 from applying poor quality of waste paper. Moreover, the application of cleaning chemicals,
 detergents, and the like accordingly causes increase in cost to make a commitment to effluent treatment problem.
 Now, we will present our new type of felt cleaning method coming from a novel idea, which is
 totally different from conventional methods and explain the features well.

Valmet-Raisio Color Mat System For On-Line Measurement of Coating Color Properties in Coater Supply System
Yosuke Takesita
Nippon U.S. Machinery Co., Ltd

 The quality controlling for the coating color used to be carried out so far by picking up color samples periodically from the line and bringing them to a laboratory for analysis.
 However, in the much improved and high speed production sites of these days, the above method would inevitably bring us about a large amount of loss in the color production, since the method would consume much time, after any detection of undesirable things and before any counter-measure to be taken to stop it would be taken. This has become the more peculiar, the hirer the machine speed has got, and "on-line color analysis" has become a must with that much increased coater speed.
 On the other hand, the continuous color make-down system has made its debut, out of the tendency to minimize the color consumption and to best optimize the production efficiency, and it calls for "on-line color analysis" as an indispensable part of it.
 "COLOR-MAT" is a highly reliable an on-line color analysis system which on-line takes measurements of temperature, solid content, air content, and rheology factors, and is even equipped with a self-cleaning system. It can be connected to whichever existing DCS systems in mills, and has been introduced to a larger number of paper mills in Europe.
 The best position along on the coater line at which "COLOR-MAT" should be line-connected, should be as much closer to a coater head as possible, to optimize the coater operation and consequent paper quality.

Ozone treatments of bleached kraft pulp and wastepaper U.
Simultaneous use of ultraviolet lights and hydrogen peroxide during ozone treatment of bleached kraft pulp
Satoshi Yamamoto
Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology*
Chizuru Koga, Hiroyoshi Hosomura
Media R&D, Fuji Xerox / Supply Business Company
Takayuki Okayama
Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
*Present address: Research & Development Div., LINTEC Corporation

 In a previous report, it was found that the brightness and the sheet strength tended to be improved when the chlorine compound component included in the pulp decreased during the ozone treatment of the chlorine-type bleached pulp. At this time, ultraviolet lights and hydrogen peroxide were simultaneously used during the ozone treatment of the bleached kraft pulp as an application of the advanced oxidation process. The effect of the treatment by each combination of ozone/ultraviolet lights, ozone/hydrogen peroxide, and ozone/ultraviolet lights/hydrogen peroxide on the various physical properties of the pulp fiber and the changes in the chlorine compound in the pulp were examined. In this experiment, three kinds of light sources with different wavelengths and outputs were used as sources of the ultraviolet lights, and changes in the reaction condition such as the amount of addition of hydrogen peroxide and the presence of the stabilizer, etc., were evaluated. The total halogens (TX) and the ethanol extractable organic halogens (EOX), which were the index of the chlorine compound, freeness, water retention value, limiting viscosity number, tensile strength, and light scattering coefficient, etc., of the sample were measured after the treatment.
 Both the total halogens (TX) and ethanol extractable organic halogens (EOX) decreased compared to the value by the ozone treatment alone when the pulp was treated by the ozone/ultraviolet lights combination. On the other hand, the brightness and tensile strength were significantly improved when the pulp was treated with the ozone/hydrogen peroxide combination. For the combination of ozone/ultraviolet lights/hydrogen peroxide, the tensile strength was remarkably improved. Moreover, it was found that the improvement in the sheet strength by the ozone treatment was attributed to an increase in the bonding strength between the fibers as a result of the tensile strength and the zero-span tensile strength measurement of the handsheet after the treatment.

Keywords: Ozone treatment, Advanced oxidation process, Chlorine-bleached pulp, Total halogen, Extractable organic halogen, Uitraviolet light irradiation, Hydrogen peroxide, Tensile strength, Brightness

Surface Chemistry of Deinking Process:Correlation between Surface Free Energy of Ink and Deinking Agent on Office Waste Deinking
Shisei Goto and Takanori Miyanishi
Pulp and Paper Research Laboratory, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.

 The surface properties of four types of inks (toner ink, inkjet ink, offset newsprint ink and heat-offset ink) and their effects on office waste deinking were investigated with regard to the surface tension of deinking agents. The surface free energy of those inks was determined from the measured contact angles and surface tensions of probe liquids using the Lifshitz-van der Waals/acid ?base approach. All of the tested inks were characterized as having low-energy surfaces and the major contribution was derived from the Lifshitz-van der Waals component. Among them the toner ink had the lowest surface energy whereas the inkjet ink had the highest energy. The contact angles of deinking agents on the ink decreased as the surface tension of deinking agents decreased. On the other hand, the deinking experiments indicated that detachment efficiency of the inks from the newspaper and copy paper became highest when the surface tension of deinking agent was similar to the Lifshitz-van der Waals surface energy component of the inks. Furthermore, the hairy toner/clean toner ratio, which was calculated by visual microscopic observation, showed that the deinking agents, which gave better toner ink detachment, facilitated toner ink break down. It was concluded that the surface energy is an important parameter in office waste deinking.

Keywords: contact angle, deinking agent, office waste, surface energy, surface tension