May 2002 Abstracts

Techniques for Reducing the Environmental Load in Vehicle Transportation- On the Hybrid Electric Vehicles −
Ken-ichi Shimizu
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology

 To reduce the global warming effect, it is important to reduce the energy spent in transportation sector, especially spent by the vehicles.Because, over 20% energy is spent in transportation sector, and more than 80% energy in transportation sector are spent by the vehicles.
 Effective way to improve the energy efficiency of the vehicle is to introduce the electric motors instead of the internal combustion engines.Motor driven vehicles (or motor assisted vehicles) such as electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles (or fuel cell hybrid vehicles) are expected to become widespread near future.
 This paper describes current status of EV technologies and technical trends in hybrid vehicles / fuel cell vehicles.
 Fuel cell vehicle has a lot of subjects to be solved before popularizing, for example, costs and life of cells, efficiency in actual driving conditions, selection of fuel source, infrastructure for fuel supply and so on.On the contrary, hybrid electric vehicle will be most promising low emission and high efficient vehicles to be put into practical use near future.Various types and levels of hybridization may exist and will be accepted corresponding to the variety in utilization.
 Features of the HEVs on the market and prototype HEVs developed by the manufactures or developed in the governmental project are also listed.These features lead to the fact that the fuel efficiency can be improved up to twice of one in conventional internal combustion engine vehicles’ by hybridization.

Efforts to Co2 Reduction Made by Other Countries and Japan's Responses
Kenji Komaki
Office of International Strategy on Climate Change Global Environment Bureau Ministry of the Environment Government of Japan

 Specific consequences for the Kyoto Protocol were adopted at the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP7) held in Morocco from October to November 2001. This will lead to establishing sets of rules for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and promote the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in developed countries. Japan began full-scale preparations for the Kyoto Protocol, aiming at ratification taking place in 2002 during the next Ordinary Diet session. We will aim to adjust or establish domestic structures for the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol.
 This report provides you for the outline of the Kyoto Protocol, the agreement by COP7, the considerations on domestic measures made by Central Environment Council together with the report on other countries' situations.

Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems- Current Status and Prospects -
Koichi Sakuta
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology

 The total amount of solar energy we are receiving from the sun is about 10,000 times as much as we are consuming now. As a typical distributed energy source, solar energy is one of the most promising clean and renewable energy for the mankind in the future. Especially, solar photovoltaic power generation systems, which convert solar energy directly into electricity, are attracting many ones attention because of its simplicity and wide field of applications.
 After a long period of R&D and various kinds of governmental supporting programs, the cost of photovoltaic systems are reduced significantly, the conversion efficiency is improved and the large scale commercialization has just started. The present status, as well as the future prospects, of R&D and introduction of photovoltaic systems are described.

The Current Agreement and the Future Agenda on the Carbon Sink by COP7
Yoshiki Yamagata
National Institute for Environmental Study

 At the COP7 of the UNFCCC, international agreement was reached on the rules for implementing the carbon sink related article of the Kyoto Protocol. Especially difficult was the forest management under the article 3.4 as additional human induced activities. This paper summarizes the agreed rules for counting the sink activities and discuses the future agenda need to be negotiated.

Progress in Saving Energy Consumption in the Pulp and Paper Industry in Japan
Kunihiko Aida
Japan Paper Association

 The Japan Paper Association (JPA) has been actively working to save energy since 1997 when it established its "Voluntary Action Plan on Environmental Issues". JPA declared its policy of restraining CO2 emissions as one of the actions: By 2010, reduce the unit of purchased energy for paper products by 10% from that of 1990 level.
 JPA has been following through on activities in saving energies from fiscal 1998-1990 as a basic period, and has been making its results public every year. For the convenience of complying data, targets were changed from the calendar year to the fiscal year midway. The following are the results for fiscal 2000:
 Unit of purchased energy in fiscal 2000 was smoothly reduced by 7.2% from the level in 1990. However, the reduction in a unit of CO2 emissions remained 4.9% because cost competitive coals have been largely used.
 Paper and paperboard production increased by 13.1% in fiscal 2000 compared to that of 1990 level, whereas, increase in CO2 emissions remained at 7.6% from the 1990 level. A breakdown of the 5.5% reduction from 13.1% to 7.6% shows that the pulp and paper industry decreased by 4.2% and electric companies contribute to reducing the remaining 1.3% (from effective generating and transmission electricity).
 According to 29 companies that replied to our questionnaires, a total of 23.1 billion yen was invested in energy saving measures for fiscal 2000 and the crude oil equivalent of energy saved reached 176 thousand kiloliters per year. As far as the estimation from 27 companies, 93.0 billion yen will be invested and 4,884 thousand kiloliters per year will be saved from 2000 onwards.

Energy Saving by an Introduction of Inverter to Papermaking Process
Hiroji Kanuka
Hachinohe Mill,Mitsubishi Paper Mills Ltd.

 Mitsubishi Paper Mills have been paying an extensive effort to reduce the burden to the environment respecting its own Environmental Charter instituted in 1993. Mitsubishi Paper Mills’ Target for the reduction of CO2 emission is to achieve the 20% reduction from the emission volume in 1999 until 2005. As the CO2 emission volume of Hachinohe Mill constitute 70% of the total emission by Mitsubishi Paper Mills, reduction of CO2 emission in Hachinohe Mill is of the highest priority.
 Aiming the continuous reduction of energy consumption, Hachinohe Mill started the investment for the "Measures to reduce purchase energy per unit production" in year 2000.

 This paper reports the results of our first step investment to reduce about 1,000 kW electricity consumption mainly by an introduction of 80 units inverters to the papermaking process.
 Results of the introduction of the generator using the steam from the accumulator of digester as the second step investment and the other activity regarding the energy saving are also reported.

The Energy Conservation Measure and The Industrial Waste Reduction Measure in DIP Manufacture Process
Yuji Takashima
Chuetsu Pulp and Paper Co. Ltd.

 At the Futatuka factory of the Chuetsu Pulp Industry Co., LTD., 170,000 tons of newspaper papers are produced yearly as the main product. As its main raw materials TMP and DIP are being produced. In response to the global environmental problem , as well as the recycling campaign, we have been promoting the use of DIP, of which the consumption of energy is low and which is gentle to the earth’s environment. Furthermore, in order to develop this feature, we have been promoting energy saving and the measure against industrial waste at the initial stage of the used paper pulpering process. There, we are aiming at improvement in processing efficiency, the measure to reduce the volume of steam for warming, as well as the fiber yield.

Installation of Continuous Pre-coat Renewal for Lime Mud Filter− Saving Heavy Oil on the Lime Kiln System −
Kazushi Ueda
Asahikawa Mill, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.

 The No1 and No2 Lime Mud filters of Asahikawa Mill started in 1960 and 1972 respectively. To release plugged filter, accumulated lime mud have been blown off using blower machine so as to renew pre-coat layer periodically.
 Air blowing is not completely efficient so hydrochloric-washing work is necessary for these filters. Furthermore, the moisture of sludge fluctuates, and rotary kilns are thrown into unstable operation, therefore consumption of heavy oil tends to increase. After installing CPR (Continuous Pre-coat Renewal), lime mud feed is stabilized and pre-coat blow-off is avoided.
 This paper describes results on saving heavy oil achieved from the installation of CPR system.

Activities of Energy Conservation in Power Plant
Shigeki Izumi
Tomakomai mill. Oji Papar Co.,Ltd.

 Tomakomai mill thermal power station consists of seven boilers and 13 turbines and can provide you with all of mill electricity demand by self generation including hydraulic power generation.In a boiler plant, the thing which passed increased the above than operation for 25 years and I took into account the present driving results and did a review and did update to a reasonable fan more in turn since 1997. In addition, you should have promoted saving energy more and carried out a start stop in the
 weekend of a boiler turbine. I introduce the details to the following.

Energy Conservation for Medium Consistency (MC) Pumps in Kraft Pulp Line−Conversion Effects into Energy Saving MC Pumps−
Masayoshi Tsukano
Niigata Mill, Hokuetsu Paper Mills Ltd.

 Hokuetsu Paper Niigata Mill, that started up the first full-scale ECF bleaching plant in Japanese pulp and paper industry, intends to achieve minimum impact mill due to concerning coexistence with the local community and environmental aspects. This time, we are planning to strengthen a capacity of Medium Consistency (MC) pumps in order to increase a part of the fiber line. However, MC pumps consume most of all electric power in the fiber line because they are running on large-scale and high-voltage motors. We are going to convert MC pumps into energy conservation types in the middle of December 2001. We believe that the new pumps are expected to make great impacts for the energy consumption rate and cost cut. The conversion plan is still in process; therefore the backgrounds of the conversion MC pumps and the estimation of the amount of saving electric power are reported.

The Energy Conservation with the Heat Pipes Finned Tube Heat Exchanger−Recovering Exhaust Heat of Coating Machine Dryer−
Chiyonobu Sasaki
Nakoso Mill, Nippon Paper Industries Co.,Ltd

 Nakoso Mill in the southernmost point of Fukushima lies to Iwaki City on about two hours from the metropolitan circle. This mill is a medium scale factory in Nippon Paper Industries Co.,Ltd, it owns one paper machine and five coating machines.
 The energy situation of this mill producing in the information papers results an annual power consumption 79,298 MWh ( on private electric generation 66,623 MWh ), generation of steam 66,623 MWh ( heavy oil consumption 36,200 kL ) from February, 2000 to February, 2001. The energy intensity doesn’t show remarkable improvement in spite of many energy-saving projects, because of increase of energy consumption by investment in plant and equipment in order to cope with more and more variety of products to supply user needs. This mill has been tackled for attainment of the target of energy conservation in whole this company ( 10 % reduction of energy consumption per unit products based on 1990 levels to 2010 ). This paper reports on recovering exhaust heat of coating machine dryer, has been planned for energy-saving measures of coating machine occupied the majority of steam consumption.

Energy-Saving Technology and Examples at YONAGO N-1 Paper Machine and N-1Coater
Ikuo Tsumori
OJI Engineering Co., Ltd

 N-1 Paper machine and N-1Coater at YONAGO mill,OJI Paper,has been in operation since September1997.The new line has the capacity of 700tpd of woodfree coated paper. The paper machine and the coater incorporated the state of the new technology, such as double shoe press in the paper machine, and Janus calender in the coater, to achieve high productivity and high quality of paper. This article introduces some examples of energy-saving technology at the paper machine and the coater .

Elastic Bending Analysis for Plate of Single-Wall Corrugated Fiberboard-On Rectangular Concentrated Uniform Distribution Load Applied at Optional Position in Plate of Supporting Edges-Satoru Matsshima
Guest Professor, Research Center of District Corpration, Ehime University
Shigeo Matsushima
Professor Emeritus, Ehime University

 An elastic analysis of stress and deformation was attempted for the anisotropic plate of the single-wall corrugated fiberboard (SWCF) supported by four edges under the uniform concentrated rectangular distribution load p0 applied in the optional range of the plate. Distributions of stresses and deflections etc. on the outer surface of jute liner (JL) of the SWCF plate obtained by this analysis were discussed, and these characters were done obviously. Obtained results are as follows.
 Large values of deflection and normal stresses (in machine and cross directions) on the JL sur-face of the SWCF plate concentrate remarkably in the loading range and are zero in plate edges.
 The value of its deflection increases with the increase of the distances from the loading center to the four edges. The maximum value of the deflection is near the center of the loading distribution,and increases with increases of four distances from the its load center to the four edges. And maximum values of normal stresses are at the loading center, and increase with the increase of the loading concentration. The maximum value of supporting forces in edges is at the shortest position from the center of the distribution loading. Large absolute value of shear stress on the JL sur-face concentrates remarkably near the loading range, and this stress near the loading center dis-tributes antisymmetically to its center.

Key Words: Computational Mechanics, Structure Analysis, Elastic Bending, Strength of Corrugated Fiberboard, Elastic Stress Analysis, Structure Strength, Numerical Analysis

-Influence of Coating Pigment on Inkjet Printing Qualities-
Yong-Kyu Lee, Kook-Hun An, Kwang-Seob Lee
Department of Paper Science & Engineering, College of Forestry Science, Kangwon National University,
Shigenori Kuga
Department of Biomaterials Science, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo

 Characteristics of inkjet-grade paper coating were evaluated by applying various coating layers on a plastic substrate instead of paper. The poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film had to be hydrophilized by precoating. Precoating with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was found effective for this purpose, but resulted in crack formation after the main coating. This problem could be avoided by adding optimized amount of clay to the precoating color. Four types of silica gel, a plate-shaped aluminum hydroxide, and a plate-shaped clay were tested as main coating pigment, with PVA as binder. The latter two pigments gave poor inkjet print qualities due to slow absorption of ink leading to significant dot gain and mottling. On the other hand, silica gel pigments generally gave satisfactory print quality, but it showed certain variation with the type of pigment. The time dependence of water contact angle against various coated layers showed correlations with dot shape and optical properties in inkjet printing.

Keyword:inkjet paper, pigment coating, silica gel, contact angle, water absorption,dot area