TAPPI JOURNALVol. 56, No. 5
May 2002 Abstracts
Techniques for Reducing the Environmental Load in Vehicle Transportation- On
the Hybrid Electric Vehicles −
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
To reduce the global warming effect, it is important to reduce the energy spent
in transportation sector, especially spent by the vehicles．Because, over 20%
energy is spent in transportation sector, and more than 80% energy in transportation
sector are spent by the vehicles．
Effective way to improve the energy efficiency of the vehicle is to introduce
the electric motors instead of the internal combustion engines．Motor driven vehicles
(or motor assisted vehicles) such as electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles
and fuel cell vehicles (or fuel cell hybrid vehicles) are expected to become
widespread near future．
This paper describes current status of EV technologies and technical trends
in hybrid vehicles / fuel cell vehicles．
Fuel cell vehicle has a lot of subjects to be solved before popularizing, for
example, costs and life of cells, efficiency in actual driving conditions, selection
of fuel source, infrastructure for fuel supply and so on．On the contrary, hybrid
electric vehicle will be most promising low emission and high efficient vehicles
to be put into practical use near future．Various types and levels of hybridization
may exist and will be accepted corresponding to the variety in utilization．
Features of the HEVs on the market and prototype HEVs developed by the manufactures
or developed in the governmental project are also listed．These features lead
to the fact that the fuel efficiency can be improved up to twice of one in conventional
internal combustion engine vehicles’ by hybridization．
Efforts to Co2 Reduction Made by Other Countries and Japan's Responses
Office of International Strategy on Climate Change Global Environment Bureau
Ministry of the Environment Government of Japan
Specific consequences for the Kyoto Protocol were adopted at the Parties to
the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP7) held in Morocco from October
to November 2001. This will lead to establishing sets of rules for the implementation
of the Kyoto Protocol and promote the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in developed
countries. Japan began full-scale preparations for the Kyoto Protocol, aiming
at ratification taking place in 2002 during the next Ordinary Diet session. We
will aim to adjust or establish domestic structures for the ratification of the
This report provides you for the outline of the Kyoto Protocol, the agreement
by COP7, the considerations on domestic measures made by Central Environment
Council together with the report on other countries' situations.
Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems- Current Status and Prospects -
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
The total amount of solar energy we are receiving from the sun is about 10,000
times as much as we are consuming now. As a typical distributed energy source,
solar energy is one of the most promising clean and renewable energy for the
mankind in the future. Especially, solar photovoltaic power generation systems,
which convert solar energy directly into electricity, are attracting many ones
attention because of its simplicity and wide field of applications.
After a long period of R&D and various kinds of governmental supporting
programs, the cost of photovoltaic systems are reduced significantly, the conversion
efficiency is improved and the large scale commercialization has just started.
The present status, as well as the future prospects, of R&D and introduction
of photovoltaic systems are described.
The Current Agreement and the Future Agenda on the Carbon Sink by COP7
National Institute for Environmental Study
At the COP7 of the UNFCCC, international agreement was reached on the rules
for implementing the carbon sink related article of the Kyoto Protocol. Especially
difficult was the forest management under the article 3.4 as additional human
induced activities. This paper summarizes the agreed rules for counting the sink
activities and discuses the future agenda need to be negotiated.
Progress in Saving Energy Consumption in the Pulp and Paper Industry in Japan
Japan Paper Association
The Japan Paper Association (JPA) has been actively working to save energy since
1997 when it established its "Voluntary Action Plan on Environmental Issues".
JPA declared its policy of restraining CO2 emissions as one of the actions: By
2010, reduce the unit of purchased energy for paper products by 10% from that
of 1990 level.
JPA has been following through on activities in saving energies from fiscal
1998-1990 as a basic period, and has been making its results public every year.
For the convenience of complying data, targets were changed from the calendar
year to the fiscal year midway. The following are the results for fiscal 2000:
Unit of purchased energy in fiscal 2000 was smoothly reduced by 7.2% from the
level in 1990. However, the reduction in a unit of CO2 emissions remained 4.9%
because cost competitive coals have been largely used.
Paper and paperboard production increased by 13.1% in fiscal 2000 compared to
that of 1990 level, whereas, increase in CO2 emissions remained at 7.6% from
the 1990 level. A breakdown of the 5.5% reduction from 13.1% to 7.6% shows that
the pulp and paper industry decreased by 4.2% and electric companies contribute
to reducing the remaining 1.3% (from effective generating and transmission electricity).
According to 29 companies that replied to our questionnaires, a total of 23.1
billion yen was invested in energy saving measures for fiscal 2000 and the crude
oil equivalent of energy saved reached 176 thousand kiloliters per year. As far
as the estimation from 27 companies, 93.0 billion yen will be invested and 4,884
thousand kiloliters per year will be saved from 2000 onwards.
Energy Saving by an Introduction of Inverter to Papermaking Process
Hachinohe Mill,Mitsubishi Paper Mills Ltd.
Mitsubishi Paper Mills have been paying an extensive effort to reduce the burden
to the environment respecting its own Environmental Charter instituted in 1993.
Mitsubishi Paper Mills’ Target for the reduction of CO2 emission is to achieve
the 20% reduction from the emission volume in 1999 until 2005. As the CO2 emission
volume of Hachinohe Mill constitute 70% of the total emission by Mitsubishi Paper
Mills, reduction of CO2 emission in Hachinohe Mill is of the highest priority.
Aiming the continuous reduction of energy consumption, Hachinohe Mill started
the investment for the "Measures to reduce purchase energy per unit production" in
This paper reports the results of our first step investment to reduce about
1,000 kW electricity consumption mainly by an introduction of 80 units inverters
to the papermaking process.
Results of the introduction of the generator using the steam from the accumulator
of digester as the second step investment and the other activity regarding the
energy saving are also reported.
The Energy Conservation Measure and The Industrial Waste Reduction Measure in
DIP Manufacture Process
Chuetsu Pulp and Paper Co. Ltd.
At the Futatuka factory of the Chuetsu Pulp Industry Co., LTD., 170,000 tons
of newspaper papers are produced yearly as the main product. As its main raw
materials TMP and DIP are being produced. In response to the global environmental
problem , as well as the recycling campaign, we have been promoting the use of
DIP, of which the consumption of energy is low and which is gentle to the earth’s
environment. Furthermore, in order to develop this feature, we have been promoting
energy saving and the measure against industrial waste at the initial stage of
the used paper pulpering process. There, we are aiming at improvement in processing
efficiency, the measure to reduce the volume of steam for warming, as well as
the fiber yield.
Installation of Continuous Pre-coat Renewal for Lime Mud Filter− Saving Heavy
Oil on the Lime Kiln System −
Asahikawa Mill, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
The No1 and No2 Lime Mud filters of Asahikawa Mill started in 1960 and 1972
respectively. To release plugged filter, accumulated lime mud have been blown
off using blower machine so as to renew pre-coat layer periodically.
Air blowing is not completely efficient so hydrochloric-washing work is necessary
for these filters. Furthermore, the moisture of sludge fluctuates, and rotary
kilns are thrown into unstable operation, therefore consumption of heavy oil
tends to increase. After installing CPR (Continuous Pre-coat Renewal), lime mud
feed is stabilized and pre-coat blow-off is avoided.
This paper describes results on saving heavy oil achieved from the installation
of CPR system.
Activities of Energy Conservation in Power Plant
Tomakomai mill. Oji Papar Co.,Ltd.
Tomakomai mill thermal power station consists of seven boilers and 13 turbines
and can provide you with all of mill electricity demand by self generation including
hydraulic power generation.In a boiler plant, the thing which passed increased
the above than operation for 25 years and I took into account the present driving
results and did a review and did update to a reasonable fan more in turn since
1997. In addition, you should have promoted saving energy more and carried out
a start stop in the
weekend of a boiler turbine. I introduce the details to the following.
Energy Conservation for Medium Consistency (MC) Pumps in Kraft Pulp Line−Conversion
Effects into Energy Saving MC Pumps−
Niigata Mill, Hokuetsu Paper Mills Ltd.
Hokuetsu Paper Niigata Mill, that started up the first full-scale ECF bleaching
plant in Japanese pulp and paper industry, intends to achieve minimum impact
mill due to concerning coexistence with the local community and environmental
aspects. This time, we are planning to strengthen a capacity of Medium Consistency
(MC) pumps in order to increase a part of the fiber line. However, MC pumps consume
most of all electric power in the fiber line because they are running on large-scale
and high-voltage motors. We are going to convert MC pumps into energy conservation
types in the middle of December 2001. We believe that the new pumps are expected
to make great impacts for the energy consumption rate and cost cut. The conversion
plan is still in process; therefore the backgrounds of the conversion MC pumps
and the estimation of the amount of saving electric power are reported.
The Energy Conservation with the Heat Pipes Finned Tube Heat Exchanger−Recovering
Exhaust Heat of Coating Machine Dryer−
Nakoso Mill, Nippon Paper Industries Co.,Ltd
Nakoso Mill in the southernmost point of Fukushima lies to Iwaki City on about
two hours from the metropolitan circle. This mill is a medium scale factory in
Nippon Paper Industries Co.,Ltd, it owns one paper machine and five coating machines.
The energy situation of this mill producing in the information papers results
an annual power consumption 79,298 MWh ( on private electric generation 66,623
MWh ), generation of steam 66,623 MWh ( heavy oil consumption 36,200 kL ) from
February, 2000 to February, 2001. The energy intensity doesn’t show remarkable
improvement in spite of many energy-saving projects, because of increase of energy
consumption by investment in plant and equipment in order to cope with more and
more variety of products to supply user needs. This mill has been tackled for
attainment of the target of energy conservation in whole this company ( 10 %
reduction of energy consumption per unit products based on 1990 levels to 2010
). This paper reports on recovering exhaust heat of coating machine dryer, has
been planned for energy-saving measures of coating machine occupied the majority
of steam consumption.
Energy-Saving Technology and Examples at YONAGO N-1 Paper Machine and N-1Coater
OJI Engineering Co., Ltd
N-1 Paper machine and N-1Coater at YONAGO mill,OJI Paper,has been in operation
since September1997.The new line has the capacity of 700tpd of woodfree coated
paper. The paper machine and the coater incorporated the state of the new technology,
such as double shoe press in the paper machine, and Janus calender in the coater,
to achieve high productivity and high quality of paper. This article introduces
some examples of energy-saving technology at the paper machine and the coater
Elastic Bending Analysis for Plate of Single-Wall Corrugated Fiberboard-On Rectangular
Concentrated Uniform Distribution Load Applied at Optional Position in Plate
of Supporting Edges-Satoru Matsshima
Guest Professor, Research Center of District Corpration, Ehime University
Professor Emeritus, Ehime University
An elastic analysis of stress and deformation was attempted for the anisotropic
plate of the single-wall corrugated fiberboard (SWCF) supported by four edges
under the uniform concentrated rectangular distribution load p0 applied in the
optional range of the plate. Distributions of stresses and deflections etc. on
the outer surface of jute liner (JL) of the SWCF plate obtained by this analysis
were discussed, and these characters were done obviously. Obtained results are
Large values of deflection and normal stresses (in machine and cross directions)
on the JL sur-face of the SWCF plate concentrate remarkably in the loading range
and are zero in plate edges.
The value of its deflection increases with the increase of the distances from
the loading center to the four edges. The maximum value of the deflection is
near the center of the loading distribution,and increases with increases of four
distances from the its load center to the four edges. And maximum values of normal
stresses are at the loading center, and increase with the increase of the loading
concentration. The maximum value of supporting forces in edges is at the shortest
position from the center of the distribution loading. Large absolute value of
shear stress on the JL sur-face concentrates remarkably near the loading range,
and this stress near the loading center dis-tributes antisymmetically to its
Key Words: Computational Mechanics, Structure Analysis, Elastic Bending, Strength
of Corrugated Fiberboard, Elastic Stress Analysis, Structure Strength, Numerical
-Influence of Coating Pigment on Inkjet Printing Qualities-
Yong-Kyu Lee, Kook-Hun An, Kwang-Seob Lee
Department of Paper Science & Engineering, College of Forestry Science, Kangwon
Department of Biomaterials Science, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences,
The University of Tokyo
Characteristics of inkjet-grade paper coating were evaluated by applying various
coating layers on a plastic substrate instead of paper. The poly(ethylene terephthalate)
(PET) film had to be hydrophilized by precoating. Precoating with poly(vinyl
alcohol) (PVA) was found effective for this purpose, but resulted in crack formation
after the main coating. This problem could be avoided by adding optimized amount
of clay to the precoating color. Four types of silica gel, a plate-shaped aluminum
hydroxide, and a plate-shaped clay were tested as main coating pigment, with
PVA as binder. The latter two pigments gave poor inkjet print qualities due to
slow absorption of ink leading to significant dot gain and mottling. On the other
hand, silica gel pigments generally gave satisfactory print quality, but it showed
certain variation with the type of pigment. The time dependence of water contact
angle against various coated layers showed correlations with dot shape and optical
properties in inkjet printing.
Keyword：inkjet paper, pigment coating, silica gel, contact angle, water absorption，dot